This study investigated phenotypic correlations between mental toughness and humor styles, as well as the common genetic and environmental effects underlying these correlations. Participants were 201 adult twin pairs from North America. They completed the Humor Styles Questionnaire, assessing individual differences in two positive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two negative (aggressive, self-defeating) humor styles. They also completed the MT48, measuring individual differences in global mental toughness and its eight factors (Commitment, Control, Emotional Control, Control over Life, Confidence, Confidence in Abilities, Interpersonal Confidence, Challenge). Positive correlations were found between the positive humor styles and all of the mental toughness factors, with all but one reaching significance. Conversely, negative correlations were found between all mental toughness factors and the negative humor styles, with the mental toughness factors of Control, Emotional Control, Confidence, Confidence in Abilities, and Interpersonal Confidence exhibiting significant correlations. Subsequent behavioral genetic analyses revealed that these phenotypic correlations were primarily attributable to common genetic and common non-shared environmental factors. The implications of these findings regarding the potential effects of humor styles on wellbeing, and the possible selective use of humor by mentally tough individuals are discussed.