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Research reviews highlight methodological limitations and gaps in the evidence base for the arts in dementia care. In response, we developed a 12-week visual art program and evaluated the impact on people living with dementia through a mixed-methods longitudinal investigation.
One hundred and twenty-five people living with mild to severe dementia were recruited across three research settings in England and Wales (residential care homes, a county hospital, and community venues). Quantitative and qualitative data on quality of life (QoL), communication and perceptions of the program were obtained through interviews and self-reports with participants and their carers. Eight domains of well-being were measured using a standardized observation tool, and data compared to an alternative activity with no art.
Across all sites, scores for the well-being domains of interest, attention, pleasure, self-esteem, negative affect, and sadness were significantly better in the art program than the alternative condition. Proxy-reported QoL significantly improved between baseline and 3-month follow-up, but no improvements in QoL were reported by the participants with dementia. This was contrasted by their qualitative accounts, which described a stimulating experience important for social connectedness, well-being, and inner-strength. Communication deteriorated between baseline and follow-up in the hospital setting, but improved in the residential care setting.
The findings highlight the potential for creative aging within dementia care, the benefits of art activities and the influence of the environment. We encourage dementia care providers and arts and cultural services to work toward embedding art activities within routine care provision.
Infants exposed to selective antidepressants (SADs) in utero are at risk to develop poor neonatal adaptation (PNA) postpartum. As symptoms are non-specific and the aetiology of PNA is unknown, the diagnostic process is hampered. We hypothesised that the serotonin metabolism plays a role in the aetiology of PNA.
In this controlled study, infants admitted postpartum from February 2012 to August 2013 were included and followed for 3 days. Infants exposed to SADs during at least the last 2 weeks of fetal life were included in the patient group (n=63). Infants not exposed to psychotropic medication and admitted postpartum for another reason were included in the control group (n=126). The neonatal urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetid acid (5-HIAA) levels of SAD-exposed infants who developed PNA, SAD-exposed infants who did not develop PNA and control infants were compared.
The course of the 5-HIAA levels over the first 3 days postpartum differed between infants with and without PNA (p≤0.001) with higher 5-HIAA levels in infants with PNA on day 1 (2.42 mmol/mol, p=0.001). Presence of maternal psychological distress modified this relationship.
A transient disturbance of the neonatal serotonergic system may play a role in the aetiology of PNA. Other factors, including the presence of maternal psychological distress, also seem to play a role.
Few personalized e-interventions are available for informal and professional caregivers of people with dementia. The DEMentia Digital Interactive Social Chart (DEM-DISC) is an ICT tool to support customized disease management in dementia. The aim of this study was to improve and evaluate DEM-DISC, its user-friendliness and usefulness and to investigate the future implementation.
A cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) design was used with measurements at baseline, 6 and 12 months. A total of 73 informal caregivers of people with dementia, supported by 19 randomized case managers participated in the study. In the intervention group, both carers (n = 41) and case managers (n = 13) could access DEM-DISC during twelve months. The control group, 32 carers and 14 case managers, had no access to DEM-DISC. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten stakeholders.
Informal caregivers who used DEM-DISC for twelve months reported an increased sense of competence than controls. A subgroup of users who frequently accessed DEM-DISC reported more met needs after six months than controls. Overall informal caregivers and case managers judged DEM-DISC as easy to learn and user-friendly.
This study demonstrates that using DEM-DISC had a positive effect on the sense of competence and experienced (met) needs of informal carers. This shows the importance of user-friendly ICT solutions to assist carers in finding appropriate care services tailored to their specific situation and needs. For further implementation of DEM-DISC methods to keep the information updated is of great importance.
Little is known about the prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactivity
disorder (ADHD) among older adults.
To estimate the prevalence of the syndromatic and symptomatic DSM-IV ADHD
diagnosis in older adults in The Netherlands.
Data were used from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA). At
baseline, 1494 participants were screened with an ADHD questionnaire and
in 231 respondents a structured diagnostic interview was administered.
The weighted prevalence of ADHD was calculated.
The estimated prevalence rate of syndromatic ADHD in older adults was
2.8%; for symptomatic ADHD the rate was 4.2%. Younger elderly adults
(60–70 years) reported significantly more ADHD symptoms than older
elderly adults (71–94 years).
This is the first epidemiological study on ADHD in older persons. With a
prevalence of 2.8% the study demonstrates that ADHD does not fade or
disappear in adulthood and that it is a topic very much worthy of further
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