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Despite efforts to address the global forest crisis, deforestation and degradation continue, so we need to urgently revisit possible solutions. A failure to halt the global forest crisis contributes to climate change and biodiversity loss and will continue to result in inequalities in access to, and benefits from, forest resources. In this paper, we unpack a series of powerful myths about forests and their management. By exposing and better understanding these myths and what makes them so persistent, we have the basis to make the social and political changes needed to better manage and protect forests globally.
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic kidney disease and is caused by heterozygous germ-line mutations in either PKD1 (85%) or PKD2 (15%). It is characterised by the formation of numerous fluid-filled renal cysts and leads to adult-onset kidney failure in ~50% of patients by 60 years. Kidney cysts in ADPKD are focal and sporadic, arising from the clonal proliferation of collecting-duct principal cells, but in only 1–2% of nephrons for reasons that are not clear. Previous studies have demonstrated that further postnatal reductions in PKD1 (or PKD2) dose are required for kidney cyst formation, but the exact triggering factors are not clear. A growing body of evidence suggests that DNA damage, and activation of the DNA damage response pathway, are altered in ciliopathies. The aims of this review are to: (i) analyse the evidence linking DNA damage and renal cyst formation in ADPKD; (ii) evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of biomarkers to assess DNA damage in ADPKD and finally, (iii) evaluate the potential effects of current clinical treatments on modifying DNA damage in ADPKD. These studies will address the significance of DNA damage and may lead to a new therapeutic approach in ADPKD.
We previously reported an association between 5HTTLPR genotype and
outcome following cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) in child anxiety
(Cohort 1). Children homozygous for the low-expression short-allele
showed more positive outcomes. Other similar studies have produced mixed
results, with most reporting no association between genotype and CBT
To replicate the association between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcome in child
anxiety from the Genes for Treatment study (GxT Cohort 2,
n = 829).
Logistic and linear mixed effects models were used to examine the
relationship between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcomes. Mega-analyses using both
cohorts were performed.
There was no significant effect of 5HTTLPR on CBT outcomes in Cohort 2.
Mega-analyses identified a significant association between 5HTTLPR and
remission from all anxiety disorders at follow-up (odds ratio 0.45,
P = 0.014), but not primary anxiety disorder
The association between 5HTTLPR genotype and CBT outcome did not
replicate. Short-allele homozygotes showed more positive treatment
outcomes, but with small, non-significant effects. Future studies would
benefit from utilising whole genome approaches and large, homogenous
A statistically sound procedure for the unambiguous identification of the underlying Bravais lattice of an image of a 2D periodic array of objects is described. Our Bravais lattice detection procedure is independent of which type of microscope has been utilized for the recording of the image data. It is particularly useful for the correction of Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) images that suffer from a blunt scanning probe tip artifact, i.e. simultaneously recording multiple mini-tips. The unambiguous detection of the type of translation symmetry presents a first step towards making objective decisions about which plane symmetry a 2D periodic image is best modeled by. Such decisions are important for the application of Crystallographic Image Processing (CIP) techniques to images from Scanning Probe Microscopes (SPMs).
We employ intense and short pulses of energetic lithium (Li+) ions to investigate the relaxation dynamics of radiation induced defects in single crystal silicon samples. Ions both create damage and track damage evolution simultaneously at short time scales when we use the channeling effect as a diagnostic tool. Ion pulses, ∼20 to 600 ns long and with peak currents of up to ∼1 A are formed in an induction type linear accelerator, the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. By rotating silicon (<100>) membranes of different thicknesses and changing the incident ion energy, the fraction of channeled ions in the transmitted beam could be varied. In preliminary experiments we find that the Li ion intensity is not high enough to generate overlapping cascades (in time and space) that would be necessary to measure a change in the shape of the current waveform of the transmitted ion beam. We discuss the concept of pump-probe type experiments with short ion beam pulses to access defect dynamics in materials and outline a path to increasing damage rates with heavier ions and by the application of longitudinal and lateral pulse compression techniques.
A scanning force microscope for in situ nanofocused X-ray studies (SFINX) has been developed which can be installed on diffractometers at synchrotron beamlines allowing for the combination with various techniques such as coherent X-ray diffraction and fluorescence. The capabilities of this device are demonstrated on Cu nanowires and on Au islands grown on sapphire (0001). The sample topography, crystallinity, and elemental distribution of the same area are investigated by recording simultaneously an AFM image, a scanning X-ray diffraction map, and a fluorescence map. Additionally, the mechanical response of Au islands is studied by in situ indentation tests employing the AFM-tip and recording 2D X-ray diffraction patterns during mechanical loading.
Formation of carbon nanospheres is typically relegated to two costly methods. Chemical vapor deposition produces uniform spheres safely anchored to a substrate but at the cost of being slow and expensive to run. Arc discharge of a carbon target produces soot containing a low density of random spheres that must be laboriously sorted. An alternative approach is to fabricate carbon nanospheres through the pyrolysis of organic feedstock. This paper presents the findings from an investigation into using pectin as a pre-cursor material for pyrolysis. The pectin is combined with different saccharides - sucrose, dextrose, and fructose and processed in aqueous solution until a gel set. The gel is then thermally processed in a nitrogen environment at 500 °C. The resultant carbon material is examined under SEM. Images confirm the formation of nanospheres and other microscale and nanoscale structures. The pectin, a naturally derived product from plant materials, is a renewable source of materials which can be used to form nanotechnologies for many energy-related applications.
A novel micromolding approach was developed to process liquid biopolymers with high aqueous solvent contents (>90% water). Specifically silk fibroin was cast into a well-defined scaffold-like structure for potential tissue engineering applications. A method was developed to pattern the hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold surfaces. The water based biopolymer solution could then be directly applied to the desired regions on the cast surface. The variations in degree of hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity on the PDMS surfaces were quantified through contact angle measurements and compared to the outcome of the molded silk structures. Through this method free-standing structures (vs. relief surface-patterning) could be fabricated.
We conducted an epidemiologic investigation at the beginning of a nosocomial outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) to clarify the dynamics of SARS transmission, the magnitude of the SARS outbreak, and the impact of the outbreak on the community.
We identified all potential cases of nosocomially acquired SARS, linked them to the most likely infection source, and described the hospital containment measures.
A 2,300-bed medical center in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
A total of 55 cases of SARS were identified, and 227 hospital workers were quarantined. The index patient and neighboring patients were isolated. A chest physician team reviewed medical charts and chest radiographs and monitored the development of SARS in patients staying in the ward. The presence of underlying lung disease and immunocompromise in some patients made the diagnosis of SARS difficult. Some cases of SARS were diagnosed after the patients had died. Medical personnel were infected only if they cared for patients with unrecognized SARS, and caretakers played important roles in transmission of SARS to family members. As the number of cases of nosocomial SARS increased, the hospital closed the affected ward and expedited construction of negative-pressure rooms on other vacated floors for patient cohorting, and the last case in the hospital was identified 1 week later.
Timely recognition of SARS is extremely important. However, given the limitations of SARS testing, possible loss of epidemic links, and the nonspecific clinical presentations in hospitalized patients, it is very important to establish cohorts of persons with low, medium, and high likelihoods of SARS acquisition. Rapid closure of affected wards may minimize the impact on hospital operations. Establishment of hospitals dedicated to appropriate treatment of patients with SARS might minimize the impact of the disease in future epidemics.
The effects of high strain-rate deformation on the phase stability and interdiffusion were investigated for Al-Zn welds produced by ultrasonic welding at 513 K. The welds exhibited three distinct regions: a featureless region indicative of local melting on the zinc side, a solidified mushy layer and a layer of fcc grains enriched with zinc. Al-Zn phase diagrams calculated from vacancy-modified Gibbs free energy curves indicate that local melting at the weld interface may result even at 513 K if the vacancy concentrations in the fcc and hcp solutions approach 0.07 as a result of high strain-rate deformation. EDS analysis of the weld interface yielded an interdiffusivity of 1.9 μm2/s, which is five orders of magnitude larger than the normal diffusivity of zinc in aluminum at 513 K. Application of the mono-vacancy diffusion mechanism to the diffusion data also yields a vacancy concentration of 0.07, indicating that such a high vacancy concentration may indeed resulted during the ultrasonic welding at 513 K.
This paper presents the results of a study to identify the effects of preheating for plasma oxidation (ashing) of patterned Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) for Bio-MEMS applications. PDMS creates an irreversible seal to itself as well as strong seals with glass, silicon, and silicon nitride. This process activates the surface by producing hydroxyl groups that last for several minutes to allow bonding. Several channels can be stacked to create 3D systems for microfluidic applications using PDMS alone or in combination with other materials to develop hybrid systems. For PDMS, bonding temperatures typically occur at room temperature. This research investigates the effect of preheating the materials prior to ashing. The investigators successfully demonstrate good bonding of PDMS to slides with a work adhesion on the order of 100 mJm-2. Preheating the samples at 65°C results in significant increase in work adhesion depending on mixture. The effects of processing temperature and chemical components on bond quality and work of adhesion are reported.
Nickel aluminide coatings were produced on steel substrates by reactive thermal processing of pre-plated precursor layers of nickel and aluminum using plasma arc as the heat source. Controlled rapid heating melted the outer aluminum layer, which then dissolved nickel to facilitate the nucleation and growth of a nickel aluminide. The resultant coating microstructures varied from a duplex or triplex structure, consisting of either NiAl3 and a eutectic; Ni2Al3, NiAl3 and a eutectic; to a fully monolithic Ni2Al3 structure, with the latter resulting at high heat input rates and/or low heat-source traverse rates. The temperature of the reaction layer was simulated for the experimental conditions by a numerical model based on Green's function analysis. The nickel concentration at the liquid-solid interface just before any nickel aluminide nucleation was calculated by assuming local equilibrium interface conditions between the liquid layer and the fcc nickel-rich solution. The depth of nickel dissolution, which consequently determines the extent of nickel aluminide growth, was also predicted by the model. Numerical results of the nickel dissolution compared well with experimental observations.
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have potential application in high temperature environments such as in thermal processing of microelectronics. The MEMS designs require an accurate knowledge of the temperature dependent thermomechanical properties of the materials. Techniques used at room temperature often cannot be used for high-temperature property measurements. MEMS test structures have been developed in conjunction with a novel imaging apparatus designed to measure either the modulus of elasticity or thermal expansion coefficient of thin films at high temperatures. The MEMS test structure is the common bi-layered cantilever beam which undergoes thermally induced deflection at high temperatures. An individual cantilever beam on the order of 100 νm long can be viewed up to approximately 800°C. With image analysis, the curvature of the beam can be determined; and then the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion between the two layers can be determined using numerical modeling. The results of studying silicon nitride films on silicon oxide are presented for a range of temperatures.
Thin-film heterostructures experience structural relaxation when subjected to post-deposition thermal heat treatment. The rate of relaxation, elastic effects, and inelastic effects on the stress and deformation of the structure are determined by the physical properties of the materials, in particular, the solid-phase viscosity. During relaxation, movement of defects causes an increase of viscosity with time at a constant rate as these defects are annihilated. Experimental anneals have been performed on structures with polycrystalline silicon films on (111) germanium substrates, in which the substrate relaxes during thermal annealing. A numerical analysis of the experimental results has determined values for the viscosity and viscosity rate of (111) germanium wafers. In addition, four zones of the relaxation process have been identified, and results indicate that the increasing viscosity with time has a larger effect at lower furnace ramp-up rates.
The cellular microstructure of insect scales can be detailed intricately with threedimensional structures and multiple thin-film layers. In butterflies, iridescent scales can reflect bright colors through thin-film interference and other optical phenomena; the balance of radiation is absorbed for thermoregulatory purposes. Results of numerical and experimental investigations into the function, properties, and structure of these scales are presented. Of particular interest are the numerical modeling of the microscale radiative effects in the scales, determining the optical properties of the biological material, and the cellular development of thin-film structures.
Decreasing feature sizes in the microelectronics industry have led to numerous processing problems with thin film semiconductors. Non-uniform temperature distributions, due to microscale radiation effects on the radiative properties of the thin film structures, are responsible for wafer defects. These microscale radiation effects become significant as pattern spacing and film thicknesses reach the same order of magnitude as the wavelengths of the heat-source radiation. A numerical model has been developed in which normal emissivities for patterned wafers are calculated, using an effective index of refraction technique. In this study various patterns at temperatures critical to the thermal processing are examined.
Stresses and deformation in microelectronic packaging are affected by the viscoelastic behavior of polymer materials during manufacture or operation. Predicting and measuring these thermo‐mechanical effects is important for new devices, components, and materials. The viscoelastic response of Nycoa 851 polyimide thin‐films during thermal loading is investigated. The time‐dependent relaxation of polyimide films was measured in‐situ, focusing on the change in thermo‐mechanical properties based on the thickness of the polyimide layer. The curvature change of the multilayer structure (silver‐polyimide‐quartz heterostructure) was obtained for different temperatures and polymer film thicknesses. The polyimide relaxation time constant and activation energy were determined. Results indicate that the thermo‐mechanical properties of polyimide thin films are dependent on the thickness of the polymer layer.
Zone-melting recrystallization (ZMR) is a lateral epitaxy technique used to recrystallize polycrystalline thin films on substrates. Large-area multilayer structures of thin films processed with ZMR are usable in microelectronics applications. During the processing, slight variations in thermal gradients can lead to different crystalline qualities. Thus, processing uniformity over the wafer is strongly affected by the sensitivity of both the melt width and the solid/liquid interface to changes in the thermal environment. Processing control must either be set initially in a stable operating range or adjusted dynamically to variations in processing. Numerical simulations of the ZMR process were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of the process over a wide range of temperatures and materials. Results indicate that material with melting points below 900 °C are very sensitive to temperature disturbances. This is due to the increased influence of conductive heating and decreased influence of radiative heating. The increased reflectivity during phase change curbs the amount of absorbed radiation. As the absorbed radiation becomes less influential, the sensitivity of the slush width decreases. Conductive effects should be considered when processing materials with melting points at or below 900 °C.