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Intracranial pressure (ICP) is well recognised as a critical parameter to both measure and influence in the management of the head injured patient. Since Lundberg’s seminal studies, ICP has arguably become the major focus of monitoring in head injury, as well as a number of other neurosurgical scenarios.1 Mean ICP and the features that make up the ICP waveform provide insight into the state of elastance and compliance of the injured brain, impending trends and events related to changes in intracranial pathophysiology, and also end-prognosis in traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Evidence for violence and organised warfare in Iron Age Europe is varied and abundant, but it is not clear how frequently large-scale conflict occurred. Weapons, including especially swords, spears and lances, are common in graves and deposits. Defensive weapons, such as shields, helmets and body armour, also occur but are less common. The fortification of hilltops for defensive purposes is characteristic in much of Iron Age Europe. Representations of warriors, including stone statues bearing arms and scenes of marching troops, show how the weapons were deployed by soldiers. Only a few actual battlefields have been investigated. Weapons and landscape defences surely played important symbolic roles in the Iron Age, but the extent of armed conflict is not yet fully clear.
Humans have been producing ‘art’ for at least 75,000 years. But the word ‘art’ is problematic when applied to archaeology. This paper explores the use of the concept of ‘visually complex object’ to designate a very specific kind of what is generally known as ‘art’. I argue for the application of this concept to the analysis of both the design of objects and their arrangement in cultural spaces, to gain new perspectives on social and political change in a prehistoric complex society. The focus here is on visually enchanting objects and changes in the ways that such objects were used and arranged in relation to larger changes in cultural circumstances. I contrast two visual orders in Iron Age Europe—the mid final millennium bc, when the visual order of ‘princely graves’ and the eye-fixing qualities of objects focused attention on the persons of individuals competing for leadership positions; and the second and final centuries bc, when a new visual order emerged to focus attention on large, publicly deployed objects that directed attention in open spaces to create collective experiences. The principles developed from these examples from late prehistoric Europe can be applied to changes in other complex societies worldwide.
Intestinal barrier integrity is a prerequisite for homeostasis of mucosal function, which is balanced to maximise absorptive capacity, while maintaining efficient defensive reactions against chemical and microbial challenges. Evidence is mounting that disruption of epithelial barrier integrity is one of the major aetiological factors associated with several gastrointestinal diseases, including infection by pathogens, obesity and diabetes, necrotising enterocolitis, irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. The notion that specific probiotic bacterial strains can affect barrier integrity fuelled research in which in vitro cell lines, animal models and clinical trials are used to assess whether probiotics can revert the diseased state back to homeostasis and health. This review catalogues and categorises the lines of evidence available in literature for the role of probiotics in epithelial integrity and, consequently, their beneficial effect for the reduction of gastrointestinal disease symptoms.
Fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) are frequently measured to define body composition phenotypes. The load–capacity model integrates the effects of both FM and FFM to improve disease-risk prediction. We aimed to derive age-, gender- and BMI-specific reference curves of load–capacity model indices in an adult population (≥18 years).
Cross-sectional study. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure FM, FFM, appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and truncal fat mass (TrFM). Two metabolic load–capacity indices were calculated: ratio of FM (kg) to FFM (kg) and ratio of TrFM (kg) to ASM (kg). Age-standardised reference curves, stratified by gender and BMI (<25·0 kg/m2, 25·0–29·9 kg/m2, ≥30·0 kg/m2), were constructed using an LMS approach. Percentiles of the reference curves were 5th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th and 95th.
Secondary analysis of data from the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).
The population included 6580 females and 6656 males.
The unweighted proportions of obesity in males and females were 25·5 % and 34·7 %, respectively. The average values of both FM:FFM and TrFM:ASM were greater in female and obese subjects. Gender and BMI influenced the shape of the association of age with FM:FFM and TrFM:ASM, as a curvilinear relationship was observed in female and obese subjects. Menopause appeared to modify the steepness of the reference curves of both indices.
This is a novel risk-stratification approach integrating the effects of high adiposity and low muscle mass which may be particularly useful to identify cases of sarcopenic obesity and improve disease-risk prediction.
Large volume fractions of Mn–Ni–Si (MNS) precipitates formed in irradiated light water reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels cause severe hardening and embrittlement at high neutron fluence. A new equilibrium thermodynamic model was developed based on the CALculation of PHAse Diagrams (CALPHAD) method using both commercial (TCAL2) and specially assembled databases to predict precipitation of these phases. Good agreement between the model predictions and experimental data suggest that equilibrium thermodynamic models provide a basis to predict terminal MNS precipitation over wider range of alloy compositions and temperatures, and can also serve as a foundation for kinetic modeling of precipitate evolution.