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Environmental influences on the rate of Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression have received little attention. Our objective was to test hypotheses concerning associations between caregiver personality traits and the rate of AD progression.
Care receivers (CR) were 161 persons with AD from a population-based dementia progression study; 55 of their caregivers were spouses and 106 were adult children. Cognitive status of the CR was measured with the Mini-Mental State Examination every six months, over an average of 5.6 (range: 1–14) years. Linear mixed models tested rate of cognitive decline as a function of caregiver personality traits from the NEO Five-Factor Inventory.
Significantly faster cognitive decline was observed with higher caregiver Neuroticism overall; however, in stratified models, effects were significant for adult child but not spouse caregivers. Neuroticism facets of depression, anxiety, and vulnerability to stress were significantly associated with faster decline. Higher caregiver Extraversion was associated with slower decline in the CR when caregivers were adult children but not spouses.
For adult child caregivers, caregiver personality traits are associated with rate of cognitive decline in CRs with AD regardless of co-residency. Results suggest that dementia caregiver interventions promoting positive care management strategies and ways to react to caregiving challenges may eventually become an important complement to pharmacologic and other approaches aimed at slower rate of decline in dementia.
The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) will give us an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the transient sky at radio wavelengths. In this paper we present VAST, an ASKAP survey for Variables and Slow Transients. VAST will exploit the wide-field survey capabilities of ASKAP to enable the discovery and investigation of variable and transient phenomena from the local to the cosmological, including flare stars, intermittent pulsars, X-ray binaries, magnetars, extreme scattering events, interstellar scintillation, radio supernovae, and orphan afterglows of gamma-ray bursts. In addition, it will allow us to probe unexplored regions of parameter space where new classes of transient sources may be detected. In this paper we review the known radio transient and variable populations and the current results from blind radio surveys. We outline a comprehensive program based on a multi-tiered survey strategy to characterise the radio transient sky through detection and monitoring of transient and variable sources on the ASKAP imaging timescales of 5 s and greater. We also present an analysis of the expected source populations that we will be able to detect with VAST.
A variety of polymer materials including polyimide (PI), polyarylate (PAR), polynorbonene (PNB) and polyethersulphone (PES) have been studied for use as substrates in the formation of active matrix displays based upon polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin film transistors (TFTs). A process used to fabricate transflective mobile phone displays at 250°C on such substrates is described in detail. The NMOS TFTs show a mobility of 100cm2/Vs, and a threshold voltage of 3.9V; the PMOS devices have a mobility of 52cm2/Vs, and a threshold voltage of -6V. Issues relating to performance of these devices, yield of the arrays, and manufacturability are discussed.
The Supernova Working Group was re-established at the IAU XXV General Assembly in Sydney, 21 July 2003, sponsored by Commissions 28 (Galaxies) and 47 (Cosmology). Here we report on some of its activities since 2005.
The role of the platelets in the pathogenesis of venous thrombosis is still not fully defined. Evidence suggests that platelets contribute to venous clot formation, particularly under certain circumstances. Supporting evidence comes from laboratory studies as well as from clinical trials investigating the role of antiplatelet therapy.
In addition to their well-known function in thrombosis and hemostasis, platelets also mediate vascular integrity and regulate angiogenesis. The connection between hypercoagulation, thrombosis, and malignancy is by now well established. Thrombin exerts effects on tumor cells, vascular endothelium, and platelets, enhancing tumor cell growth, adhesion, angiogenesis, metastasis, and thrombosis. Thrombin thereby potentiates the malignant phenotype and initiates a “vicious cycle.”
PLATELETS IN VENOUS THROMBOSIS
The role of platelets in arterial thrombosis has been well defined, as noted elsewhere in this volume. Under conditions of high flow or shear stress, such as those found in arterioles, collagen exposed by injury to the endothelial surface activates von Willebrand factor, which subsequently recruits platelets to the site of injury or vessel narrowing. The platelets become activated and both recruit additional platelets as well as facilitate coagulation at the site of the nascent clot. The role of the platelet in venous thrombosis is less clear. However, several lines of evidence indicate that platelets are also involved in the pathogenesis of venous thromboembolism (VTE).
Salmonella is one of the most common causes of foodborne infection in Europe with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) being the most commonly identified serovar. The predominant phage type for S. Enteritidis is phage type (PT) 4, although PT 8 has increased in incidence. Within these phage types, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) provides a method of further subdivision. The international project, Salm-gene, was established in 2001 to develop a database of PFGE profiles within nine European countries and to establish criteria for real-time pattern recognition. It uses DNA fingerprints of salmonellas to investigate outbreaks and to evaluate trends and emerging issues of foodborne infection within Europe. The Salm-gene database contains details of about 11 700 S. Enteritidis isolates, demonstrating more than 65 unique PFGE profiles. The clonal nature of S. Enteritidis is evidenced by the high similarity and distribution of PFGE profiles. Over 56% (6603/11 716) of the submitted isolates of several different phage types were profile SENTXB.0001, although this profile is most closely associated with PT 4. The next most common profiles, SENTXB.0002 and SENTXB.0005, were closely associated with PT 8 and PT 21 respectively. Studies to investigate the relationship of profile types with outbreaks and possible vehicles of infection suggest that the incidence of PFGE profile SENTXB.0002, and thus PT 8, in some countries may be due to importation of foods or food production animals from Eastern Europe, where PT 8 is amongst the most frequently identified phage types. Collation of subtyping data, especially in the commonly recognized phage types, is necessary in order to evaluate trends and emerging issues in salmonella infection.
This study investigates the distribution of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles within Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type (PT) 4 and S. Typhimurium definitive phage type (DT) 104, from cases of human infection in nine European countries from 2000 to 2004. Isolates were subtyped using standardized methods and gel images submitted by each participating country to the coordinating centre (Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London, UK), where they were entered into a central database, developed within BioNumerics software, and designated using an agreed nomenclature. S. Enteritidis PT4 (n=3637) was differentiated into 38 different profiles. Simpson's index of diversity (D) of profiles ranged from 0·2 to 0·4. Profile SENTXB.0001 represented at least 80% of all profiles in each country. S. Typhimurium DT104 (n=1202) was differentiated into 28 different profile types. Simpson's D was at least 0·6 in all countries except in Austria and Italy. In both these countries over 74% of S. Typhimurium DT104 profiles were STYMXB.0013. Profile STYMXB.0061, was predominant in Denmark, Spain, Finland and England & Wales where it represented between 36% and 45% of profiles. Profile STYMXB.0001 represented nearly half of all profiles in Scotland and 23% in England & Wales. PFGE is proving useful for further discrimination within S. Enteritidis PT4 and S. Typhimurium DT104. Ascertainment of international outbreaks involving common serotypes and phage types may be increased by the timely pooling of PFGE profiles within a central database readily accessible to all participating countries.
Background. The current study investigated the fundamental
nature of the cognitive processing
deficit that has been demonstrated to be associated with dieting to
lose weight. Previous work has
characterized this deficit as being primarily one of a reduction in working-memory
present study investigated the particular components of the working-memory
Method. A sample of female subjects was classified as either
low/medium restrained eaters (N=34),
highly restrained eaters (N=18) or current dieters (N=19),
their responses to a modified
version of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ). Each subject
completed tasks that
assessed the Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad (mental rotation), Phonological
Loop (effect of phonological
similarity on recall) and the Central Executive (Tower of London Task)
components of working
Results. Those subjects who reported themselves to be currently
dieting displayed poorer recall on
the Phonological Loop task and slower planning times on the Tower of London
on both these tasks correlated significantly with a self-report measure
of body shape concern.
Conclusions. These results support the hypothesis that the
mediating variable in this deficit is that
of preoccupying cognitions concerning food and body shape.
The colour-naming performance of a group of hospitalized anorexic women
(N=12) was tested on initial admission, after 1 week of treatment and again
after 12 weeks of treatment. Compared to a control population of non-clinical
females (N=18), the anorexics colour-named both food and body shape words more
slowly than their neutral matched words; although colour-naming times, in
general, were slower for anorexics. The size of this colour-naming impairment
decreased as a function of weight gain and improvement in psychopathology,
although colour-naming times for food words improved more quickly than for body
shape words for both clinical and non-clinical subjects. The results of
correlational analysis between colour-naming times and Eating Disorder
Inventory (EDI-2) responses lead to the conclusion that colour-naming
performance for body shape, rather than food words, provides a clearer
index of improvement in psychopathological status in anorexia nervosa.
In one of a continuing series of studies, the cognitive performance of normal weight female dieters was compared on two sessions, 3 weeks apart. Those who reported themselves as being on a weight-reducing diet on only one of the two sessions displayed poorer vigilance performance, slower reaction times and poorer immediate recall of words when they were dieting. In contrast, performance on a low processing load tapping task was unaffected. Self-report measures showed that dietary restraint, but not state anxiety or depression was increased during dieting. These results are interpreted in terms of an association between dieting behaviour and high levels of distractibility, and extend earlier findings by demonstrating that these deficits in cognitive performance are closely related to dieting or the perceived need to diet per se.
Forty-four schizophrenic patients were followed up for five years after their first admission to hospital for a first episode of illness. Thirteen (30%) of 43 patients had not relapsed; 28 of the 30 patients who did relapse did so within the first 42 months. The relapses occurred despite antipsychotic drug therapy. Also, 24% of patients had at least one course of ECT. Only 19% of the patients at five years were in open employment; unemployment was strongly associated with relapse. Eighteen per cent had neither relapses nor schizophrenic symptoms at follow-up. Poor outcome at five years was associated with greater psychological distress among relatives at first admission. At five years 43% of relatives continued to show case level psychological stress.
This is the initial report of a prospective study by computerised tomography brain scan of first episode schizophrenia. Twenty-seven patients who met Research Diagnostic Criteria for schizophrenia were compared with volunteer controls on ventricular: brain ratio, sulcal: brain volume ratio, and the widths of third ventricle and Sylvian and interhemispheric fissures. The results provide evidence that sulcal enlargement, but not ventricular abnormalities, may be detected at first admission for schizophrenic illness, and are discussed in relation to findings from other studies.