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The room temperature powder pattern of lapatinib ditosylate monohydrate (active ingredient in Tykerb used to treat refractory breast cancer) was indexed and the cell from the single crystal X-ray diffraction structure was refined using the experimental capillary data. Unit-cell parameters for the orthorhombic compound with space group Pbca refined from powder diffraction data are a=9.6850±0.0009 Å, b=29.364±0.003 Å, and c=30.733±0.003 Å, α=β=γ=90°, z=8, V=8740.1 Å3. Values of 2θ, d, I, and Miller indices are reported.
The room temperature powder pattern of abacavir hemisulfate (anti-HIV reverse transcriptase compound) was indexed using 2θ values obtained from a powder pattern spiked with an internal standard. The resulting unit cell values for the monoclinic I2 cell [nonstandard setting of C2 (No. 5)] are a=13.278(1) Å, b=8.437(1) Å, c=14.259(2) Å, β=93.87(1)°. There are two formula units [(C14H16N6O)2.H2SO4] per unit cell and Dx=1.390 g∕cm3.
The current JCPDS powder pattern for the racemic compound fenoprofen calcium dihydrate (card No. 44-1790) is unindexed. Previously we reported the single crystal data, determined at −100 °C, for this material (Zhu et al., 2001). Using 2θ values obtained from a powder pattern spiked with internal standards, we indexed the room temperature powder pattern. The resulting unit cell values for the monoclinic P21/n cell are a=19.018 Å, b=7.738 Å, c=19.472 Å, β=91.66°.
A cover for Scintag's six and twelve-position sample changers was designed and constructed to provide an inert atmosphere for samples during diffraction batch runs. The cover is equipped with inlet and outlet gas ports and fits over the top of the sample changer. Using dry nitrogen gas fed into the inlet of the cover, a sample of lithium bromide was protected from atmospheric moisture for greater than 18 h. The cover uses a thin Mylar window that gives greater than 95% transparency for copper K-alpha X-rays. The cover is a simple device that allows our lab to run multiple moisture-sensitive samples in a batch mode. The simple approach and materials used in the construction of the cover could be applied to other brands of powder diffractometers.
An environmentally controlled sample stage for Scintag's six-position XRD sample changer is described. Unlike the commercial environmental stages for Scintag XRD units which require removal of the sample changer, and installation and alignment of the sample stage, the stage described herein is designed to fit directly on the sample changer with no realignment. Such a stage provides for more convenient operation for an X-ray diffractometer with multiple users in both routine (ambient environment) and nonroutine (nonambient temperatures up to 250 °C and varying relative humidities) modes. In addition, the new stage uses a window made of a material that is safer to machine compared to beryllium (which is toxic).
With a new emphasis on the control of polymorphism in pharmaceutical production, the need for methods to quantify polymorphic forms has arisen. Techniques using X-ray powder diffraction are increasingly being used to characterize the phases of drug substances that exist in multiple crystal forms. Current methods to identify the polymorphic phases in a drug substance include microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis (DSC/TGA), solid state NMR, and X-ray powder diffraction. Of the aforementioned techniques, X-ray powder diffraction provides the most effective approach to identify and quantify the different crystal phases of a pharmaceutical compound. This work is intended as a guide to the characterization and quantification of an organic crystalline system using X-ray diffraction. The approaches suggested are intended to provide assistance not only from an in-process pharmaceutical manufacturing standpoint, but also for routine quality assurance screening of polymorphic drug substances.
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