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Radiocarbon (14C) ages cannot provide absolutely dated chronologies for archaeological or paleoenvironmental studies directly but must be converted to calendar age equivalents using a calibration curve compensating for fluctuations in atmospheric 14C concentration. Although calibration curves are constructed from independently dated archives, they invariably require revision as new data become available and our understanding of the Earth system improves. In this volume the international 14C calibration curves for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, as well as for the ocean surface layer, have been updated to include a wealth of new data and extended to 55,000 cal BP. Based on tree rings, IntCal20 now extends as a fully atmospheric record to ca. 13,900 cal BP. For the older part of the timescale, IntCal20 comprises statistically integrated evidence from floating tree-ring chronologies, lacustrine and marine sediments, speleothems, and corals. We utilized improved evaluation of the timescales and location variable 14C offsets from the atmosphere (reservoir age, dead carbon fraction) for each dataset. New statistical methods have refined the structure of the calibration curves while maintaining a robust treatment of uncertainties in the 14C ages, the calendar ages and other corrections. The inclusion of modeled marine reservoir ages derived from a three-dimensional ocean circulation model has allowed us to apply more appropriate reservoir corrections to the marine 14C data rather than the previous use of constant regional offsets from the atmosphere. Here we provide an overview of the new and revised datasets and the associated methods used for the construction of the IntCal20 curve and explore potential regional offsets for tree-ring data. We discuss the main differences with respect to the previous calibration curve, IntCal13, and some of the implications for archaeology and geosciences ranging from the recent past to the time of the extinction of the Neanderthals.
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have increased susceptibility to anxiety disorders. Variation in a common ASD symptom, insistence on sameness behaviour, may predict future anxiety symptoms.
To describe the joint heterogeneous longitudinal trajectories of insistence on sameness and anxiety in children with ASD and to characterise subgroups at higher risk for anxiety.
In a longitudinal ASD cohort (n = 421), insistence on sameness behaviour was measured using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised at approximately ages 3, 6 and 11 years. Anxiety was quantified at 8 time points between ages 3 and 11 years using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (parent report). Clusters of participants following similar trajectories were identified using group-based and joint trajectory modelling.
Three insistence on sameness trajectories were identified: (a) ‘low-stable’ (41.7% of participants), (b) ‘moderate-increasing’ (52.0%) and (c) ‘high-peaking’ (i.e. increasing then stabilising/decreasing behaviour) (6.3%). Four anxiety trajectories were identified: (a) ‘low-increasing’ (51.0%), (b) ‘moderate-decreasing’ (16.2%), (c) ‘moderate-increasing’ (19.6%) and (d) ‘high-stable’ (13.1%). Of those assigned to the ‘high-peaking’ insistence on sameness trajectory, 95% jointly followed an anxiety trajectory that surpassed the threshold for clinical concern (T-score >65) by middle childhood (anxiety trajectories 3 or 4). Insistence on sameness and anxiety trajectories were similar in severity and direction for 64% of the sample; for 36%, incongruous patterns were seen (e.g. decreasing anxiety and increasing insistence on sameness).
The concurrent assessment of insistence on sameness behaviour and anxiety in ASD may help in understanding current symptom profiles and anticipating future trajectories. High preschool insistence on sameness in particular may be associated with elevated current or future anxiety symptoms.
In this paper, we present an electric-thermal drill with a novel design of a melting head that was developed within the EnEx-RANGE project. The design combines a short melting head with a large surface area of parabolic shape. It was succesfully tested in the laboratory as well as on Alpine glaciers (Langenferner and Mittelbergferner) and at the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica. In all these different environments, a high melting speed per specific power of typically 8.8 cm3 w−1 h−1 is achieved that is close to the ideal maximum bound of ~10.5–11.8 cm3 w−1 h−1 when neglecting all heat losses. It has also been demonstrated that the melting probe can be operated with typical equipment of small-scale field camps including a small power generator.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
Dark-field x-ray microscopy is intended for the acquisition of three -dimensional (3D) movies of the nanostructure (grains, domains, and dislocations) and the associated local strain within bulk materials. It is analogous to dark-field electron microscopy in that an objective lens magnifies diffracting features of the sample. The use of high-energy synchrotron x-rays, however, means that these microstructural features can be large and deeply embedded. The spatial and angular resolution is on the order of 100 nm and 0.001°, respectively, and full maps can be recorded in seconds to minutes. Four applications of the technique are presented—domain switching in ferroelectrics, processing of metals, microstructural characterization of biominerals, and visualization of dislocations. The ability to directly characterize complex, multiscale phenomena in situ—and in 3D—is a key step toward formulating and validating multiscale models that account for the entire heterogeneity of materials.
Until the past half-century, all agriculture and land management was framed by local institutions strong in social capital. But neoliberal forms of development came to undermine existing structures, thus reducing sustainability and equity. The past 20 years, though, have seen the deliberate establishment of more than 8 million new social groups across the world. This restructuring and growth of rural social capital within specific territories is leading to increased productivity of agricultural and land management systems, with particular benefits for those previously excluded. Further growth would occur with more national and regional policy support.
Orchestes fagi (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a pest of beech trees (Fagus sylvatica Linnaeus; Fagaceae) in Europe that has recently become established and invasive on American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart) in Nova Scotia, Canada. We tested the effects of trap type, trap colour, trap height, and lure on the numbers of O. fagi captured per trap with the objective of developing a survey tool to monitor the weevil’s spread. We captured O. fagi in significantly greater numbers on yellow, green, or white traps than on light blue, dark blue, or red traps. There were no significant interactions between trap colour and trap design. Sticky triangular prism traps caught significantly more O. fagi than did nonsticky intercept traps regardless of colour. No effect of trap height was observed. Mean catch of O. fagi was significantly greater on yellow sticky triangular prism traps than on commercially sourced yellow sticky cards. Baiting yellow, green, or white sticky prism traps with the host volatile 9-geranyl-p-cymene did not increase catch of O. fagi. Our results suggest that yellow, green, or white sticky prism traps are a useful tool for detecting O. fagi adults and monitoring the spread of this species in Canada.
Limited availability of fish oils (FO), rich in n-3 long-chain (≥C20) PUFA, is a major constraint for further growth of the aquaculture industry. Long-chain n-3 rich oils from crops GM with algal genes are promising new sources for the industry. This project studied the use of a newly developed n-3 canola oil (DHA-CA) in diets of Atlantic salmon fingerlings in freshwater. The DHA-CA oil has high proportions of the n-3 fatty acids (FA) 18 : 3n-3 and DHA and lower proportions of n-6 FA than conventional plant oils. Levels of phytosterols, vitamin E and minerals in the DHA-CA were within the natural variation of commercial canola oils. Pesticides, mycotoxins, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals were below lowest qualifiable concentration. Two feeding trials were conducted to evaluate effects of two dietary levels of DHA-CA compared with two dietary levels of FO at two water temperatures. Fish increased their weight approximately 20-fold at 16°C and 12-fold at 12°C during the experimental periods, with equal growth in salmon fed the FO diets compared with DHA-CA diets. Salmon fed DHA-CA diets had approximately the same EPA+DHA content in whole body as salmon fed FO diets. Gene expression, lipid composition and oxidative stress-related enzyme activities showed only minor differences between the dietary groups, and the effects were mostly a result of dietary oil level, rather than the oil source. The results demonstrated that DHA-CA is a safe and effective replacement for FO in diets of Atlantic salmon during the sensitive fingerling life-stage.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
Nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery has the potential to overcome several limitations of cancer chemotherapy. Lipid polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPHNPs) have been demonstrated to exhibit superior cellular delivery efficacy. Hence, doxorubicin (a chemotherapeutic drug)-loaded LPHNPs have been synthesized by three-dimensional (3D)-printed herringbone-patterned multi-inlet vortex mixer. This method offers rapid and efficient mixing of reactants yielding controllable and reproducible synthesis of LPHNPs. The cytotoxicity of LPHNPs is tested using two-dimensional (2D) and 3D microenvironments. Results obtained from 3D cell cultures showed major differences in cytotoxicity in comparison with 2D cultures. These results have broad implications in predicting in vitro LPHNP toxicology.
The Upper Cretaceous Kanguk Formation of the Sverdrup Basin, Canadian Arctic Islands, contains numerous diagenetically altered volcanic ash layers (bentonites). Eleven bentonites were sampled from an outcrop section on Ellesmere Island for U–Pb zircon secondary ion mass spectrometry dating and whole-rock geochemical analysis. Two distinct types of bentonite are identified from the geochemical data. Relatively thick (0.1 to 5 m) peralkaline rhyolitic to trachytic bentonites erupted in an intraplate tectonic setting. These occur throughout the upper Turonian to lower Campanian (c. 92–83 Ma) outcrop section and are likely associated with the alkaline phase of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province. Two thinner (<5 cm) subalkaline dacitic to rhyolitic bentonites of late Turonian to early Coniacian age (c. 90–88 Ma) are also identified. The geochemistry of these bentonites is consistent with derivation from volcanoes within an active continental margin tectonic setting. The lack of nearby potential sources of subalkaline magmatism, together with the thinner bed thickness of the subalkaline bentonites and the small size of zircon phenocrysts therein (typically 50–80 μm in length) are consistent with a more distal source area. The zircon U–Pb age and whole-rock geochemistry of these two subalkaline bentonites correlate with an interval of intense volcanism in the Okhotsk–Chukotka Volcanic Belt, Russia. It is proposed that during late Turonian to early Coniacian times intense volcanism within the Okhotsk–Chukotka Volcanic Belt resulted in widespread volcanic ash dispersal across Arctic Alaska and Canada, reaching as far east as the Sverdrup Basin, more than 3000 km away.
Recent research in inverse problems seeks to develop a mathematically coherent foundation for combining data-driven models, and in particular those based on deep learning, with domain-specific knowledge contained in physical–analytical models. The focus is on solving ill-posed inverse problems that are at the core of many challenging applications in the natural sciences, medicine and life sciences, as well as in engineering and industrial applications. This survey paper aims to give an account of some of the main contributions in data-driven inverse problems.
In the past years, numerous alternative cations to replace Pb2+ in perovskite solar cells have been investigated. In terms of toxicity and chemical stability, methylammonium bismuth iodide [(CH3NH3)3Bi2I9 or MBI] containing the Bi3+ cation has been considered as a promising material. However, fabrication of coherent MBI films remains challenging. Recently, significant progress has been achieved by using vapor deposition processes. Compared with solution-processed ones, vapor-deposited MBI solar cells show higher fill factors and efficiencies. In this work, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of MBI is investigated. Employing nitrogen as carrier gas, the precursors bismuth iodide (BiI3) and methylammonium iodide (MAI) are deposited sequentially over several cycles and form MBI during the process. In order to form dense and coherent layers, the lengths of the deposition cycles as well as the substrate temperature have been optimized. Scanning electron microscopy reveals the strong influence of both parameters on growth and crystal properties. Optimized films of MBI integrated into solar cells show that CVD of MBI is a promising method for fabricating large-area solar cells.
Polycrystalline Ni-based superalloys for aerospace and power generation applications are often precipitation hardened to achieve strengthening at elevated temperatures. Here, atom probe microscopy has become an essential tool to study the complex morphology of nanoscale precipitates. This study focuses on Alloy 718, which is hardened by semi-coherent, ordered γ′ (Ni3(Al, Ti)) and γ″ (Ni3(Nb)) particles. According to previous research, these particles often occur as duplets or triplets with a stacking sequence dependent on prior processing. This creates various interfaces with a strong impact on the mechanical properties, highlighting the importance of quantitative studies which are challenging with electron microscopy. We present atom probe data reconstruction and analysis approaches particularly suited for precipitation hardened superalloys. While voltage atom probe allows for an accurate reconstruction, the acquired data volume is often limited. Laser-assisted atom probe provides statistically significant data, but the loss of crystallographic information requires correlation with voltage-mode datasets. We further describe an advanced iso-surface method where initially arbitrarily chosen concentration thresholds of Al + Ti for γ′ and Nb for γ″ particles are optimized. Recognizing the importance of the precipitate stacking order, the different types of precipitate interfaces are quantified, and these methods may be applicable to other engineering alloys.