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In a large and comprehensively assessed sample of patients with bipolar disorder type I (BDI), we investigated the prevalence of psychotic features and their relationship with life course, demographic, clinical, and cognitive characteristics. We hypothesized that groups of psychotic symptoms (Schneiderian, mood incongruent, thought disorder, delusions, and hallucinations) have distinct relations to risk factors.
In a cross-sectional study of 1342 BDI patients, comprehensive demographical and clinical characteristics were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I) interview. In addition, levels of childhood maltreatment and intelligence quotient (IQ) were assessed. The relationships between these characteristics and psychotic symptoms were analyzed using multiple general linear models.
A lifetime history of psychotic symptoms was present in 73.8% of BDI patients and included delusions in 68.9% of patients and hallucinations in 42.6%. Patients with psychotic symptoms showed a significant younger age of disease onset (β = −0.09, t = −3.38, p = 0.001) and a higher number of hospitalizations for manic episodes (F11 338 = 56.53, p < 0.001). Total IQ was comparable between groups. Patients with hallucinations had significant higher levels of childhood maltreatment (β = 0.09, t = 3.04, p = 0.002).
In this large cohort of BDI patients, the vast majority of patients had experienced psychotic symptoms. Psychotic symptoms in BDI were associated with an earlier disease onset and more frequent hospitalizations particularly for manic episodes. The study emphasizes the strength of the relation between childhood maltreatment and hallucinations but did not identify distinct subgroups based on psychotic features and instead reported of a large heterogeneity of psychotic symptoms in BD.
The lifestyle recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF)/American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) are primarily intended for cancer prevention. In the absence of specific recommendations for cancer survivors, we investigated adherence of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors to the WCRF/AICR lifestyle recommendations and associations with health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The cross-sectional part of the Energy for life after ColoRectal cancer (EnCoRe) study was conducted in 155 CRC survivors (stage I-III), 2–10 years post diagnosis. Dietary intake, physical activity and general body fatness were measured by 7-d food diaries, by questionnaires and accelerometers and BMI, respectively. Adherence to each of the ten WCRF/AICR recommendations was scored as 0 (no/low adherence), 0·5 (moderate adherence) or 1 point (complete adherence), and summed into an overall adherence score (range: 0–10). HRQoL, disability and distress were assessed by validated questionnaires. Associations of the overall WCRF/AICR adherence score with HRQoL outcomes were analysed by confounder-adjusted linear regression. The mean adherence score was 5·1 (sd 1·4, range: 1·5–8·5). In confounder-adjusted models, a higher adherence score was significantly associated with the HRQoL dimension better physical functioning (β per 1 point difference in score: 2·6; 95 % CI 0·2, 5·1) and with less fatigue (β: −3·3; 95 % CI −6·4, −0·1). In conclusion, higher adherence of CRC survivors to WCRF/AICR lifestyle recommendations for cancer prevention was associated with better physical functioning and with less fatigue. This study adds to the limited knowledge on adherence to lifestyle behaviours in CRC survivors and relationships with quality of life. Prospective studies are needed to investigate longitudinal associations.
Psychological interventions may be beneficial in bipolar disorder.
To evaluate the efficacy of psychological interventions for adults with
A systematic review of randomised controlled trials was conducted.
Outcomes were meta-analysed using RevMan and confidence assessed using
the GRADE method.
We included 55 trials with 6010 participants. Moderate-quality evidence
associated individual psychological interventions with reduced relapses
at post-treatment (risk ratio (RR) = 0.66, 95% CI 0.48–0.92) and
follow-up (RR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.63–0.87), and collaborative care with a
reduction in hospital admissions (RR =0.68, 95% CI 0.49–0.94).
Low-quality evidence associated group interventions with fewer depression
relapses at post-treatment and follow-up, and family psychoeducation with
reduced symptoms of depression and mania.
There is evidence that psychological interventions are effective for
people with bipolar disorder. Much of the evidence was of low or very low
quality thereby limiting our conclusions. Further research should
identify the most effective (and cost-effective) interventions for each
phase of this disorder.