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This paper focuses on the historical politics of disaster records in Chinese local gazetteers (difangzhi 地方志). Using records of mulberry crop failures as examples, the authors ask how gazetteer editors collated Yuan disaster records—initially collected to help prevent disasters and authorize the legitimacy of dynastic rule—in gazetteers and, in so doing, made them into ‘local’ knowledge. Digital humanities methods allow for both qualitative and quantitative analyses, and the authors deploy them to demonstrate how, in structured texts like the Chinese local gazetteers, they could help combine close reading of specific sections and larger-scale analysis of regional patterns. In the first part, the authors show how disasters were recorded in a Yuan Zhenjiang gazetteer to facilitate taxation and disaster prevention locally—a strategy rarely traceable in subsequent gazetteers until the Qing. In the second part, the authors shifted their perspective to the historical accumulation of data and what that reveals about the reception of Yuan disasters: whereas local gazetteers from the north generate long chronologies of mulberry disasters from the Ming to the Qing, others depict the south as disaster-free.
This article synthesises the results of a large international study on primary care (PC), the QUALICOPC study.
Since the Alma Ata Declaration, strengthening PC has been high on the policy agenda. PC is associated with positive health outcomes, but it is unclear how care processes and structures relate to patient experiences.
Survey data were collected during 2011–2013 from approximately 7000 PC physicians and 70 000 patients in 34, mainly European, countries. The data on the patients are linked to data on the PC physicians within each country and analysed using multilevel modelling.
Patients had more positive experiences when their PC physician provided a broader range of services. However, a broader range of services is also associated with higher rates of hospitalisations for uncontrolled diabetes, but rates of avoidable diabetes-related hospitalisations were lower in countries where patients had a continuous relationship with PC physicians. Additionally, patients with a long-term relationship with their PC physician were less likely to attend the emergency department. Capitation payment was associated with more positive patient experiences. Mono- and multidisciplinary co-location was related to improved processes in PC, but the experiences of patients visiting multidisciplinary practices were less positive. A stronger national PC structure and higher overall health care expenditures are related to more favourable patient experiences for continuity and comprehensiveness. The study also revealed inequities: patients with a migration background reported less positive experiences. People with lower incomes more often postponed PC visits for financial reasons. Comprehensive and accessible care processes are related to less postponement of care.
The study revealed room for improvement related to patient-reported experiences and highlighted the importance of core PC characteristics including a continuous doctor–patient relationship as well as a broad range of services offered by PC physicians.
School bullying and cyberbullying are widely recognized as an international problem, but publications have focused on the western tradition of research. In India, recognition of these issues and research on the topics have been emerging in recent years. Beginning with cross-cultural differences across Indian, European and Australian contexts, this volume provides direct empirical comparisons between western and Indian situations. It then discusses innovative ways of hearing the views of students, pre-service teachers and teachers, featuring a range of qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The concluding commentaries from North American investigators provide a further international perspective from another region where much progress in researching these areas has been made. Together this ground-breaking collection comprises contributions from four continents on the prevalent issues of bullying, cyberbullying and student well-being.
The Cenozoic-age Lower Rhine Basin is located in the NW part of the European Cenozoic Rift System. In Miocene times, a combination of warm climatic conditions and basin subsidence resulted in the deposition of up to 100m of lignite (i.e. Main Seam of the Ville Formation). The Main Seam can be subdivided into the Morken, Frimmersdorf and Garzweiler seams, separated by two intercalated transgressive sand units, namely the Frimmersdorf and Neurath sands, deposited in a shallow-marine, tide-dominated environment. The lignite seams of the Ville Formation are currently worked by RWE Power AG, in the Garzweiler II open-cast mine. In the Frimmersdorf Seam (between the Frimmersdorf Sand and the Neurath Sand), the presence of small-scale sand bodies, together with their variable dimensions, affects the industrial exploitation of the seam. Moreover, their irregular distribution complicates their precise and early recognition. Indeed, so-called barren lignite (≥ 17% of sand) and completely clean units can occur within a few metres of each other. Initial classification of these highly variable sand bodies suggests a variety of both pre- and post-depositional causal mechanisms, providing evidence of an extremely complex depositional and post-depositional system. Syn-depositional sand bodies were deposited in a swamp area that was located in the fluvial-dominated sub-environment of an extended tidal estuary. The post-depositional formation of sand bodies is related to the intrusion of fluidized sands from the underlying Frimmersdorf Sand. These sand injectites within the Frimmersdorf Seam are considered to be linked to seismic activity within the Lower Rhine Basin.
To determine the prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) colonizing in pediatric refugees admitted to a University Children Hospital in Germany.
Retrospective observational study.
General pediatric and pediatric surgery units.
In Germany, recommendations for MDRO screening of pediatric refugees were recently published. According to these and institutional recommendations, all hospitalized pediatric refugees were screened for MDROs between October 2015 and March 2016.
Using electronic surveillance data, we performed a chart review to identify the prevalence of MDROs among and the clinical diagnoses of pediatric refugees.
Among 325 patients hospitalized for various causes, most frequently gastroenteritis (30.9%), MDROs were detected in 33.8%. Most of these patients were colonized with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative (MRGN) bacteria (113 isolates), mostly 2MRGN/ESBL (87 isolates); some patients were colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, 22 isolates); and 1 patient was colonized with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Among 110 refugee patients, we detected single colonization with an MDRO in 84 patients (76.4%), co-colonization with 2 pathogens in 23 patients (20.9%), and triple colonization in 3 patients (2.7%). However, infections with MDROs occurred in only 3.6% of pediatric refugees. The peak of positive MDRO screening results in 2015 correlated with an increased hospitalization rate.
Implementation of infection control measures among pediatric refugees is challenging. Due to the high frequency of MDROs in these patients, current screening, isolation, and treatment strategies may have to be adapted.
We describe a versatile infrared camera/spectrograph, IRIS, designed and constructed at the Anglo-Australian Observatory for use on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. A variety of optical configurations can be selected under remote control to provide several direct image scales and a few low-resolution spectroscopic formats. Two cross-dispersed transmission echelles are of novel design, as is the use of a modified Bowen-Burch system to provide a fast f/ratio in the widest-field option. The drive electronics includes a choice of readout schemes for versatility, and continuous display when the array is not taking data, to facilitate field acquisition and focusing.
The linearity of the detector has been studied in detail. Although outwardly good, slight nonlinearities prevent removal of fixed-pattern noise from the data without application of a cubic linearising function.
Specific control and data-reduction software has been written. We describe also a scanning mode developed for spectroscopic imaging.