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Liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has become an essential tool for studying the structure and properties of both hard and soft condensed-matter samples, as well as liquids themselves. Liquid cell sample holders, often consisting of two thin window layers separating the liquid sample from the high vacuum of the microscope column, have been designed to control in situ conditions, including temperature, voltage/current, or flow through the window region. While high-resolution and time-resolved TEM imaging probes the structure, shape, and dynamics of liquid cell samples, information about the chemical composition and spatially resolved bonding is often difficult to obtain due to the liquid thickness, the window layers, the holder configuration, or beam-induced radiolysis. In this article, we review different approaches to quantitative liquid cell electron microscopy, including recent developments to perform energy-dispersive x-ray and electron energy-loss spectroscopy experiments on samples in a liquid environment or the liquid itself. We also cover graphene liquid cells and other ultrathin window layer holders.
Understanding differences in social-emotional behavior can help identify atypical development. This study examined the differences in social-emotional development in children at increased risk of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis (infant siblings of children diagnosed with the disorder). Parents completed the Brief Infant-Toddler Social-Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) to determine its ability to flag children with later-diagnosed ASD in a high-risk (HR) sibling population. Parents of HR (n = 311) and low-risk (LR; no family history of ASD; n = 127) children completed the BITSEA when their children were 18 months old and all children underwent a diagnostic assessment for ASD at age 3 years. All six subscales of the BITSEA (Problems, Competence, ASD Problems, ASD Competence, Total ASD Score, and Red Flags) distinguished between those in the HR group who were diagnosed with ASD (n = 84) compared to non-ASD-diagnosed children (both HR-N and LR). One subscale (BITSEA Competence) differentiated between the HR children not diagnosed with ASD and the LR group. The results suggest that tracking early social-emotional development may have implications for all HR children, as they are at increased risk of ASD but also other developmental or mental health conditions.
Streaming ice accounts for a major fraction of global ice flux, yet we cannot yet fully explain the dominant controls on its kinematics. In this contribution, we use an anisotropic full-Stokes thermomechanical flow solver to characterize how mechanical anisotropy and temperature distribution affect ice flux. For the ice stream and glacier geometries we explored, we found that the ice flux increases 1–3% per °C temperature increase in the margin. Glaciers and ice streams with crystallographic fabric oriented approximately normal to the shear plane increase by comparable amounts: an otherwise isotropic ice stream containing a concentrated transverse single maximum fabric in the margin flows 15% faster than the reference case. Fabric and temperature variations independently impact ice flux, with slightly nonlinear interactions. We find that realistic variations in temperature and crystallographic fabric both affect ice flux to similar degrees, with the exact effect a function of the local fabric and temperature distributions. Given this sensitivity, direct field-based measurements and models incorporating additional factors, such as water content and temporal evolution, are essential for explaining and predicting streaming ice dynamics.
Personality disorder is likely to be common in late life, but our ignorance is such that, at present, we can only speculate about its frequency and importance. The only firm evidence we have is that antisocial personality features tend to be attenuated in older age and obsessional and detached features accentuated. Differentiating personality change following organic disease from personality disorder requires more attention as it is important for good clinical management.
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), constitute a major clinical component of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). There is a growing interest in BPSD as they are responsible for a large share of the suffering of patients and caregivers, and they strongly determine the patient’s lifestyle and management. Better detection and understanding of these symptoms is essential to provide appropriate management. This article is a consensus produced by the behavioral group of the European Alzheimer’s Disease Consortium (EADC). The aim of this article is to present clinical description and biological correlates of the major behavioral and psychological symptomatology in AD. BPSD is not a unitary concept. Instead, it should be divided into several symptoms or more likely: groups of symptoms, each possibly reflecting a different prevalence, course over time, biological correlate and psychosocial determinants. There is some clinical evidence for clusters within groups of BPSD. Biological studies indicate that patients with AD and BPSD are associated with variations in the pathological features (atrophy, brain perfusion/metabolism, histopathology) when compared to people with AD without BPSD. An individually tailored approach taking all these aspects into account is warranted as it may offer more, and better, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment opportunities.
This paper presents data obtained in a one-day census investigation in five European countries (Austria, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia). The census forms were filled in for 4191 psychiatric inpatients. Concerning legal status, 11.2% were hospitalised against their will (committed) and 21.4% were treated in a ward with locked doors. There was only a small correlation between commitment and treatment in a locked ward. More frequent than treatment of committed patients in locked wards was treatment of committed patients in open wards (Austria, Hungary) and treatment of voluntary patients in closed wards (Slovakia, Slovenia). Concerning employment, 27.7% of patients aged 18–60 held a job before admission. The vast majority of patients (84.8%) had a length of stay of less than 3 months. A comparison of these data with the results of a study performed in 1996 and using the same method shows a decrease of rates of long-stay patients. In 1996 the rates of employment were significantly higher in Romania (39.3%) and Slovakia (42.5%) compared to Austria (30.7%). These differences disappeared in 1999 due to decreasing rates of employment in Romania and Slovakia. The numbers of mental health personnel varies between types of institution (university or non-university) and countries, being highest in Austria and lowest in Romania. A considerable increase in the numbers of staff was found in Slovakia.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
This study investigated metabolic, endocrine, appetite and mood responses to a maximal eating occasion in fourteen men (mean: age 28 (sd 5) years, body mass 77·2 (sd 6·6) kg and BMI 24·2 (sd 2·2) kg/m2) who completed two trials in a randomised crossover design. On each occasion, participants ate a homogenous mixed-macronutrient meal (pizza). On one occasion, they ate until ‘comfortably full’ (ad libitum) and on the other, until they ‘could not eat another bite’ (maximal). Mean energy intake was double in the maximal (13 024 (95 % CI 10 964, 15 084) kJ; 3113 (95 % CI 2620, 3605) kcal) compared with the ad libitum trial (6627 (95 % CI 5708, 7547) kJ; 1584 (95 % CI 1364, 1804) kcal). Serum insulin incremental AUC (iAUC) increased approximately 1·5-fold in the maximal compared with ad libitum trial (mean: ad libitum 43·8 (95 % CI 28·3, 59·3) nmol/l × 240 min and maximal 67·7 (95 % CI 47·0, 88·5) nmol/l × 240 min, P < 0·01), but glucose iAUC did not differ between trials (ad libitum 94·3 (95 % CI 30·3, 158·2) mmol/l × 240 min and maximal 126·5 (95 % CI 76·9, 176·0) mmol/l × 240 min, P = 0·19). TAG iAUC was approximately 1·5-fold greater in the maximal v. ad libitum trial (ad libitum 98·6 (95 % CI 69·9, 127·2) mmol/l × 240 min and maximal 146·4 (95 % CI 88·6, 204·1) mmol/l × 240 min, P < 0·01). Total glucagon-like peptide-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and peptide tyrosine–tyrosine iAUC were greater in the maximal compared with ad libitum trial (P < 0·05). Total ghrelin concentrations decreased to a similar extent, but AUC was slightly lower in the maximal v. ad libitum trial (P = 0·02). There were marked differences on appetite and mood between trials, most notably maximal eating caused a prolonged increase in lethargy. Healthy men have the capacity to eat twice the energy content required to achieve comfortable fullness at a single meal. Postprandial glycaemia is well regulated following initial overeating, with elevated postprandial insulinaemia probably contributing.
Modern nanomaterials contain complexity that spans all three dimensions—from multigate semiconductors to clean energy nanocatalysts to complex block copolymers. For nanoscale characterization, it has been a long-standing goal to observe and quantify the three-dimensional (3D) structure—not just surfaces, but the entire internal volume and the chemical arrangement. Electron tomography estimates the complete 3D structure of nanomaterials from a series of two-dimensional projections taken across many viewing angles. Since its first introduction in 1968, electron tomography has progressed substantially in resolution, dose, and chemical sensitivity. In particular, scanning transmission electron microscope tomography has greatly enhanced the study of 3D nanomaterials by providing quantifiable internal morphology and spectroscopic detection of elements. Combined with recent innovations in computational reconstruction algorithms and 3D visualization tools, scientists can interactively dissect volumetric representations and extract meaningful statistics of specimens. This article highlights the maturing field of electron tomography and the widening scientific applications that utilize 3D structural, chemical, and functional imaging at the nanometer and subnanometer length scales.