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Passive acoustic monitoring is rapidly gaining recognition as a practical, affordable and robust tool for measuring gun hunting levels within protected areas, and consequently for its potential to evaluate anti-poaching patrols’ effectiveness based on outcome (i.e., change in hunting pressure) rather than effort (e.g., kilometres patrolled) or output (e.g., arrests). However, there has been no report to date of a protected area successfully using an acoustic grid to explore baseline levels of gun hunting activity, adapting its patrols in response to the evidence extracted from the acoustic data and then evaluating the effectiveness of the new patrol strategy. We report here such a case in Cameroon’s Korup National Park, where anti-poaching patrol effort was markedly increased in the 2015–2016 Christmas/New Year holiday season to curb the annual peak in gunshots recorded by a 12-sensor acoustic grid in the same period during the previous 2 years. Despite a three- to five-fold increase in patrol days, distance and area covered, the desired outcome – lower gun hunting activity – was not achieved under the new patrol scheme. The findings emphasize the need for adaptive wildlife law enforcement and how passive acoustic monitoring can help attain this goal, and they warn about the risks of using effort-based metrics of anti-poaching strategies as a surrogate for desired outcomes. We propose ways of increasing protected areas’ capacity to adopt acoustic grids as a law enforcement monitoring tool.
Broadleaf species escape current integrated weed management strategies in strawberry [Fragaria×ananassa (Weston) Duchesne ex Rozier (pro sp.) [chiloensis×virginiana]] production. Clopyralid is a registered POST control option, but current application timings provide suppression of only some species. Earlier clopyralid application timings may increase spray coverage to weeds at the planting hole, but strawberry plant tolerance to applications shortly after transplant is unknown. The objectives of the study were to determine the degree of clopyralid tolerance when applied to mature strawberry plants according to current management strategies, whether clopyralid absorption and translocation were involved in the tolerance response demonstrated by mature strawberry plants, and whether clopyralid could be safely applied to immature strawberry plants shortly after transplant. Clopyralid caused no damage when applied to mature strawberry plants and did not affect crop height, number of crowns, flowers, immature berries, or yield. Maximal strawberry absorption of radiolabeled clopyralid was 82% of the recovered radioactivity and reached peak (90%) absorption at 15 h. Maximal total translocation of radioactivity from the treated leaf was 17% and reached peak translocation at 52 h. Translocation was primarily to the new leaves and reproductive structures. In the early-application experiment, damage induced by clopyralid for all application timings reached 0 by 8 wk after treatment. Across all timings, maximal damage at 140 g ha−1 was 17% when applied 14 d after transplant (DATr) and 56% at 28 g ha−1 when applied at 21 DATr. Clopyralid dose did not affect the number of crowns, aboveground biomass, or yield. There was some stunting in plant height (3%) by the high labeled dose of clopyralid. Labeled dose clopyralid applications appear safe for application timings closer to strawberry transplant, though considerations of leaf cupping should be taken under consideration for label changes.
Strawberry is an important horticultural crop in Florida. The long growing season and escapes from fumigation and PRE herbicides necessitate POST weed management to maximize harvest potential and efficiency. Alternatives to hand-weeding are desirable, but clopyralid is the only broadleaf herbicide registered for use. Weed control may be improved by early-season clopyralid applications, but at risk of high temperature and increased strawberry injury. The effect of temperature on clopyralid safety on strawberry is unknown. We undertook a growth chamber experiment using a completely randomized design to determine crop safety under various temperature conditions across acclimation, herbicide application, and post-application periods. There was no effect of clopyralid on the number of strawberry leaves across all temperatures. Damage to the strawberry manifested as leaf malformations. Acclimation temperatures affected clopyralid-associated injury (p=0.0309), with increased leaf malformations at higher temperatures (27 C) compared to lower (18 C) temperatures. Pre-treatment temperatures did not affect clopyralid injury. Post-application temperature also affected clopyralid injury (p=0.0161), with increased leaf malformations at higher temperatures compared to lower ones. Clopyralid application did not reduce flowering or biomass production in the growth chamber. If leaf malformations are to be avoided, consideration to growing conditions prior to application is advisable, especially if applying clopyralid early in the season.
Strawberries, an important Florida crop, are grown on raised beds covered with plastic mulch. The plastic mulch provides good control of many weeds, but some problem species can emerge from the transplant hole during crop establishment. POST herbicide options for broadleaf weed control within the strawberry bed is limited to clopyralid, which only provides suppression. Strawberry canopy shielding may be responsible for the observed incomplete control with clopyralid application for problematic broadleaf weed species such as black medic and Carolina geranium. Two field experiments were established on mature strawberries to evaluate spray penetration through the canopy. The first examined spray penetration through the canopy of multiple strawberry cultivars at various distances from the crown. The second examined the effects of application volumes and nozzle selection on spray penetration. Cultivar selection had no effect on spray penetration through the canopy. In the first study, when applying at 281 L ha−1, the area around the planting hole (0 to 5 cm from the crown) had 8% coverage below the canopy while the area below the canopy edge (10 to 15 cm from the crown) had 27% coverage. In the second study, increasing the application volume from 187 to 375 L ha−1 increased coverage by 81%. Increasing the application volume from 375 to 740 L ha−1 increased coverage 33% with maximal coverage of 53% at 740 L ha−1. Nozzle type (standard even flat spray tip, Drift Guard, or TwinJet nozzles) did not affect coverage or deposition volume below the canopy. Overall, mature strawberry canopies demonstrated similar spray droplet penetration across cultivars with increased penetration with increased distance from the crown. Penetration increased with increasing application volume, but the nozzle types used in this experiment did not affect penetration. Additional research is needed to better define the effect of application volume on herbicide efficacy.
Strawberries are an important horticultural crop in Florida. Black medic is among the most problematic weeds within the production system. To better coordinate control measures, black medic growth and development while in competition with strawberry was studied. Twelve plants were randomly selected at each of four field sites in Hillsborough County, FL, in 2014. Plants were repeatedly measured over the growing season for stem length and number of primary branches, flower buds, flowers, and seed clusters. Growing degree days (GDD) were calculated (Tbase=0 C) starting from the hole-punch application of the plastic mulch (October 8, 2014, to October 10, 2014) from weather station data generated from the Florida Automated Weather Network. Strawberry height and width increased consistently across all sites, but black medic growth and development varied considerably. Strawberry suppressed black medic growth up to 1,805 cumulative GDD at three of four sites where black medic remained beneath the strawberry canopy. After 1,805 GDD, the black medic stems still remained below but experienced exponential growth for total stem length and, in turn, flower buds, inflorescence, and immature seed clusters. Ideal clopyralid spray timing based on susceptible plant size was 890 to 1,152 GDD. Optimal hand-weeding time frames would likely occur as the plant stems expand beyond the strawberry canopy (to improve visibility) and before flower production to prevent seed return to the seedbank. First seed production was observed at 1,200 GDD at the earliest site and between 1,966 to 2,365 GDD across all the other sites. Overall, consistent trends were observed across sites, but between-site variability was observed that could not be accounted for by differences in temperature.
Intestinal barrier integrity is a prerequisite for homeostasis of mucosal function, which is balanced to maximise absorptive capacity, while maintaining efficient defensive reactions against chemical and microbial challenges. Evidence is mounting that disruption of epithelial barrier integrity is one of the major aetiological factors associated with several gastrointestinal diseases, including infection by pathogens, obesity and diabetes, necrotising enterocolitis, irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. The notion that specific probiotic bacterial strains can affect barrier integrity fuelled research in which in vitro cell lines, animal models and clinical trials are used to assess whether probiotics can revert the diseased state back to homeostasis and health. This review catalogues and categorises the lines of evidence available in literature for the role of probiotics in epithelial integrity and, consequently, their beneficial effect for the reduction of gastrointestinal disease symptoms.
Objectives: To summarize the clinical characteristics and outcomes of pediatric sports-related concussion (SRC) patients who were evaluated and managed at a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program and examine the healthcare resources and personnel required to meet the needs of this patient population. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all pediatric SRC patients referred to the Pan Am Concussion Program from September 1st, 2013 to May 25th, 2015. Initial assessments and diagnoses were carried out by a single neurosurgeon. Return-to-Play decision-making was carried out by the multidisciplinary team. Results: 604 patients, including 423 pediatric SRC patients were evaluated at the Pan Am Concussion Program during the study period. The mean age of study patients was 14.30 years (SD: 2.32, range 7-19 years); 252 (59.57%) were males. Hockey (182; 43.03%) and soccer (60; 14.18%) were the most commonly played sports at the time of injury. Overall, 294 (69.50%) of SRC patients met the clinical criteria for concussion recovery, while 75 (17.73%) were lost to follow-up, and 53 (12.53%) remained in active treatment at the end of the study period. The median duration of symptoms among the 261 acute SRC patients with complete follow-up was 23 days (IQR: 15, 36). Overall, 25.30% of pediatric SRC patients underwent at least one diagnostic imaging test and 32.62% received referral to another member of our multidisciplinary clinical team. Conclusion: Comprehensive care of pediatric SRC patients requires access to appropriate diagnostic resources and the multidisciplinary collaboration of experts with national and provincially-recognized training in TBI.
The importance of PRE herbicide applications in cotton has increased since the evolution of glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth. Cotton producers are relying on residual herbicides for control of Palmer amaranth, as POST options are limited or ineffective. S-Metolachlor, acetochlor, fomesafen, and dicamba all provide PRE control of Palmer amaranth; however, little is known about the effect of irrigation rate on incorporation and herbicidal efficacy. In 2015, an experiment was conducted on fine sand and loamy sand soils to evaluate the influence of irrigation volume (0.0 to 12.7 mm ha−1) on Palmer amaranth control with PRE herbicides. Irrigation volume after herbicide application was significant for both S-metolachlor and acetochlor. Efficacy of S-metolachlor was greatest in plots receiving 6.4 and 12.7 mm of irrigation where Palmer amaranth biomass was reduced to 4 and 2% of a nontreated control (NTC), respectively, compared with 61% in plots with the 0-mm irrigation treatment. Palmer amaranth control by acetochlor incorporated at 3.2- to 12.7-mm irrigation did not differ but did reduce Palmer amaranth biomass compared with the 1.6-mm irrigation rate. Irrigation volume was not significant for the soil incorporation of fomesafen or dicamba. Across all herbicides, fomesafen-treated plots provided the most consistent control of Palmer amaranth, reducing its biomass to < 3% of NTC at all irrigation rates. Dicamba provided the least and most inconsistent control of Palmer amaranth, producing 17 to 51% of NTC biomass.
To describe the role, contribution and value of research nurses in New Zealand community-based or primary health care research.
Research nurses are increasingly recognised as having a key role in undertaking successful research in hospitals and clinical trial units however only limited work has been undertaken to examine their role in community-based research. Undertaking health research in the community has unique challenges particularly in relation to research design and recruitment and retention of participants.
We describe four community-based research projects involving research nurses, each with particular recruitment, retention and logistical problems. Vignettes are used to illustrate the role, contribution and value of research nurses in a diverse range of community research projects.
The knowledge and skills used by research nurses in these projects included familiarity with communities, cultural competence, health care systems and practice philosophies and in particular with vulnerable populations. Their research actions and activities include competence with a broad range of research methodologies, organisational efficiency, family-centred approach, along with advocacy and flexibility. These are underpinned by nursing knowledge and clinical expertise contributing to an ability to work autonomously. These four projects demonstrate that research nurses in community-based research possess specific attributes which facilitate successful study development, implementation and outcome.
Sex differences in the ratio of fat mass (FM):fat-free mass (FFM) during weight change should differentially affect the extent of weight change during energy imbalance in men and women. In the present study, we determined FM and FFM contents by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and calculated the P-ratios (protein energy/total energy) of excess weight and weight loss during a randomised controlled trial of four commercial weight loss regimens. Overweight and obese women (n 210) and men (n 77) were studied at baseline and at 2 and 6 months during weight loss on four dietary regimens: Dr Atkins' New Diet Revolution; The Slim-Fast Plan; Weight-Watchers programme; Rosemary Conley's Diet and Fitness Plan. At baseline, the percentage of FFM (%FFM) and P-ratios of excess weight were 40 % and 0·071 for men and 27 % and 0·039 for women. At 2 months, men had lost twice as much weight as women and three times more FFM than women, indicating higher FFM content and P-ratios of weight loss for men, 0·052, than for women, 0·029, with no dietary effects. Between 2 and 6 months, the rate at which weight was lost decreased and the %FFM of weight loss decreased to similar low levels in men (7 %) and women (5 %): i.e. P-ratios of 0·009 and 0·006, respectively, with no dietary effects. Thus, for men compared with women, there were greater FFM content and P-ratios of weight change, which could partly, but not completely, explain their greater weight loss at 2 months. However, protein-conserving adaptations occur with increasing weight loss and over time, more extensively in men, eventually eliminating any sex difference in the composition of weight loss.
With the loss of methyl bromide (MeBr) and high prices of alternatives, tomato growers are applying lower fumigant rates or adopting a reduced system. Without the broad-spectrum control provided by the complete fumigant system, a fallow weed program might be needed to avoid an increase in pest pressure with consecutive years of application of the reduced-fumigant system. Nutsedges are among the pests of interest due to their fast reproduction by underground structures and ability to spread and quickly infest a field. Field trials were conducted between February and December of 2011 in Balm, FL, to evaluate the impacts of fallow treatments, fumigants, and halosulfuron on nutsedge control. The trial design was a split–split plot with main, sub-, and subsubplots being fallow, fumigant, and herbicide treatment, respectively. Fallow treatments were spaced evenly throughout the fallow season and consisted of sequential combinations of cultivation (C) and/or glyphosate (G) applied at 2.24 kg ae ha−1; including: C, CC, G, GG, CG, GC, GCG, and NO (nontreated control). Fumigant treatments included a reduced-fumigant system of 1,3-dichloropropene plus chloropicrin 40:60 (1,3-D + pic) at 281 kg ha−1, a complete fumigant system of dimethyl disulfide plus chloropicrin 79:21 (DMDS + pic) at 545 kg ha−1, and no fumigant (NoFum). Herbicide treatments were either two POST applications of halosulfuron at 39 g ai ha−1 (Hal) or no halosulfuron (NoHal). In general, the fallow weed treatment GCG was the most effective in reducing nutsedge shoot emergence through the plastic mulch. When the reduced-fumigant system 1,3-D + pic was combined with GCG fallow treatment and halosulfuron (GCG:1,3-D + pic:Hal), no differences were found between this combination and the complete fumigant system DMDS + pic with halosulfuron and combined with CC, G, GG, CG, GC or GCG. This study shows the importance of adding a fallow weed program and halosulfuron to either a reduced or complete fumigation system to minimize the reproduction and growth of nutsedges.
This commentary argues that age changes in heritability are incompatible with Charney's theory. The new genetics must be tempered by the findings that many epigenetic phenomena are random and are linked to pathology, thus making them peripheral to the design of complex adaptations. Behavior-genetic findings are compatible with strong maternal effects; G × E correlations likely underestimate environmental effects; and G × E interactions are unlikely to be an important aspect of normal development.
Providing patients with instructions and equipment regarding self-removal of nonabsorbable sutures could represent a new efficiency in emergency department (ED) practice. The primary outcome was to compare the proportion of patients successfully removing their own sutures when provided with suture removal instructions and equipment versus the standard advice and follow-up care. Secondary outcomes included complication rates, number of physician visits, and patient comfort level.
This prospective, controlled, single-blinded, pseudorandomized trial enrolled consecutive ED patients who met the eligibility criteria (age > 19 years, simple lacerations, nonabsorbable sutures, immunocompetent). The study group was provided with wound care instructions, a suture removal kit, and instructions regarding suture self-removal. The control group received wound care instructions alone. Outcomes were assessed by telephone contact at least 14 days after suturing using a standardized questionnaire.
Overall, 183 patients were enrolled (93 in the intervention group; 90 in the control group). Significantly more patients performed suture self-removal in the intervention group (91.5%; 95% CI 85.4–97.5) compared to the control group (62.8%; 95% CI 52.1–73.6) (p < 0.001). Patients visited their physician less often in the intervention group (9.8%; 95% CI 3.3–16.2) compared to the control group (34.6%; 95% CI 24.1–45.2%) (p < 0.001). Complication rates were similar in both groups.
Most patients are willing to remove, and capable of removing, their own sutures. Providing appropriate suture removal instructions and equipment to patients with simple lacerations in the ED appears to be both safe and acceptable.
Centenarians are survivors, and many among them exemplify sustained competence into very old age. This paper highlights three important resilience domains among centenarians: personal resilience (e.g., personality), cognitive resilience (e.g., intellectual functioning), and social and economic resilience (e.g., social support and economic resources). These psychosocial resources of resilience are linked to overall functioning and survivorship among centenarians. Our findings suggest that a “robust” personality, cognitive reserves, and social and economic resources are salient resilience factors necessary for survival and optimal functioning and well-being. To illustrate, personality traits (e.g., competence) and perceived economic status served as mediators between negative life stress and negative affect. With regard to cognition, some centenarians function very well despite low education or poor physical functioning. Finally, perceived economic status mediates the relation between physical functioning and negative affect. Taken together, we conclude that psychosocial resources and resilience are important components of quality of life in late life.
Resilience is a descriptor placed on individuals or groups of individuals who survived in the face of adversities. Resilience has been used to describe survivors of the September 11, 2001 attack at the New York World Trade Center as well as the 2005 Katrina hurricane survivors in New Orleans. Masten (2001) defined resilience as “a class of phenomena characterized as good outcome in spite of serious threats to adaptation or development” (p. 227).
Dr. A is sitting at home enjoying dinner when the phone rings. The caller is Mr. B, an acquaintance. He is distraught. He asks how much air must be injected into an intravenous line to cause a person to die. When asked why he wants to know, he explains that his 72-year-old father, currently a patient in a local hospital, has end-stage metastatic lung cancer and is in excruciating pain. Mr. B cannot bear to see his father in such pain and wants to end his suffering by means of an air embolism.
Mr. C, a 68-year-old man with a 100 pack-per-year history of smoking and known chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, presents to the emergency department with pneumonia and respiratory failure. He has been intubated four times before for respiratory failure. He uses oxygen at home and is dyspneic at rest. He has hypoxemia, hypercapnia, and is delirious. The emergency physician, Dr. D, tries to stabilize his condition with oxygen, bronchodilators, steroids, and non-invasive ventilation, but Mr. C's respiratory status worsens. Dr. D cannot locate Mr. C's family. She calls Mr. C's family physician and respirologist to find out whether they have ever discussed re-intubation, but unfortunately neither has done so. Although she is uncomfortable with this situation because of the uncertainty about the patient's wishes, Dr. D decides to perform the intubation.