To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In the alloy materials, their mechanical properties mightly rely on the compositions and concentrations of chemical elements. Therefore, looking for the optimum elemental concentration and composition is still a critical issue to design high-performance alloy materials. Traditional alloy designing method via “trial and error” or domain experts’ experiences is barely possible to solve the issue. Here, we propose a “composition-oriented” method combined machine learning to design the Cu–Zn alloys with the high strengths, high ductility, and low friction coefficient. The method of separate training for each attribute label is used to study the effects of elemental concentrations on the mechanical properties of Cu–Zn alloys. Moreover, the elemental concentrations of new Cu–Zn alloys with the good mechanical properties are predicted by machine learning. The current results reveal the vital importance of the “composition-oriented” design method via machine learning for the development of high-performance alloys in a broad range of elemental compositions.
Cloth face covering has been recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to decrease community viral transmission. This study aims to determine the filtration efficiency and airflow resistance of common household materials available for homemade mask production by comparing numbers of fabrics, various layers, and manipulation.
Common household woven, knitted, and nonwoven fabrics were tested for filtration efficiency using a fit testing setup and airflow resistance with pressure gauge setup. Three different levels of layering (1, 2, and 4) were tested. Some fabric material was further tested after washing and drying. Filtration performance, the area under the fitted curve comparing airflow resistance and filtration efficiency, was calculated for each fabric material and compared.
Layering increased filtration efficiency and airflow resistance (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.01, respectively). Polyester felt demonstrated the highest filtration performance index (P < 0.0001), higher than all tested 100% cotton materials (all P < 0.05) as well as surgical masks (P < 0.05). Washing plus drying did not alter filtration performance significantly (P > 0.05).
A filtration performance of common household fabrics were compared. Homemade mask designers and producers will have improved data to better balance effectiveness, availability, and comfort with the goal of decreasing community viral transmission.
The growing concern for ethics in applied linguistics may be attributed to attempts to stem the rising incidence of ethical lapses in order to ensure that the core ethical principles of (1) respect for persons, (2) yielding optimal benefits while minimizing harm, and (3) justice are preserved. Following a brief historical review of this topic, and building on the growing commitment to carry out ethical applied linguistic research, we map out seven research tasks that will enhance our understanding of how to extend this expanding research agenda. By inviting applied linguists to evaluate their methodological practices and those of their peers, we also argue for the need to develop the ethical dispositions of emerging applied linguists, with a view to create a more robust field.
This study focused on the ability of the Antarctic bacterium Rhodococcus sp. strain AQ5-14 to survive exposure to and to degrade high concentrations of phenol at 0.5 g l-1. After initial evaluation of phenol-degrading performance, the effects of salinity, pH and temperature on the rate of phenol degradation were examined. The optimum conditions for phenol degradation were pH 7 and 0.4 g l-1 NaCl at a temperature of 25°C (83.90%). An analysis using response surface methodology (RSM) and the Plackett-Burman design identified salinity, pH and temperature as three statistically significant factors influencing phenol degradation. The maximum bacterial growth was observed (optical density at 600 nm = 0.455), with medium conditions of pH 6.5, 22.5°C and 0.47 g l-1 NaCl in the central composite design of the RSM experiments enhancing phenol degradation to 99.10%. A central composite design was then used to examine the interactions among these three variables and to determine their optimal levels. There was excellent agreement (R2 = 0.9785) between experimental and predicted values, with less strong but still good agreement (R2 = 0.8376) between the predicted model values and those obtained experimentally under optimized conditions. Rhodococcus sp. strain AQ5-14 has excellent potential for the bioremediation of phenol.
The Shiji (史記 Records of the Grand Historian) is of great value for Chinese history before 90 BCE. Many online databases provide character-based search of the Shiji. We go beyond simple search by creating an word-based open-access database of the Basic Annals (本纪) of the Shiji that allows the exploration of relationships between persons and the relationships between persons and named places.
Microvascular health is a main determinant of coronary blood flow reserve and myocardial vascular resistance. Extracardiac capillary abnormality has been reported in subjects at increased coronary heart disease risk, such as prehypertension, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis. We have reported cardiovascular dysfunction in a cohort of maternal nutrient reduction (MNR)-induced intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) baboon offspring. Here we test the hypothesis that there is oral capillary rarefaction associated with MNR-induced IUGR. Capillary density was quantified using in vivo high-power capillaroscopy on seven middle-aged (~10.7 yr; human equivalent ~40 yr) male IUGR baboons and seven male age-matched controls in the lateral buccal and inferior labial mucosa. While no difference was found between groups in either area by fraction area or optical density for these vascular beds derived from fetal preductal vessels, further studies are needed on post-ductal vascular beds, retina, and function.
Although Huawei started its business as a small agent in 1987, the firm began the independent development of telecommunications equipment in its fouth year of operation and then gradually increased its R&D investments over the years. As the scale of R&D efforts increased, Huawei encountered significant problems with its organization of R&D and felt that it was necessary to transform how it conducts R&D several times over its thirty-year history. In this chapter, we develop a four-step model to analyze three major R&D management transformations in Huawei’s long history of R&D activities. The first transformation, from 1991 to 1995, helped Huawei to establish an informal R&D system; the second transformation, from 1995 to 1998, changed the informal R&D management system into a formal system with clear structures and processes; and finally, the third transformation built up a process-oriented, high-performing R&D organization. We find that although the transformations shifted Huawei’s focus from making structural changes to process changes, all of them were closely aligned with the firm’s market position and with its strategic re-orientation.
Nutritional therapy is a cornerstone of burns management. The optimal macronutrient intake for wound healing after burn injury has not been identified, although high-energy, high-protein diets are favoured. The present study aimed to identify the optimal macronutrient intake for burn wound healing. The geometric framework (GF) was used to analyse wound healing after a 10 % total body surface area contact burn in mice ad libitum fed one of the eleven high-energy diets, varying in macronutrient composition with protein (P5−60 %), carbohydrate (C20−75 %) and fat (F20−75 %). In the GF study, the optimal ratio for wound healing was identified as a moderate-protein, high-carbohydrate diet with a protein:carbohydrate:fat (P:C:F) ratio of 1:4:2. High carbohydrate intake was associated with lower mortality, improved body weight and a beneficial pattern of body fat reserves. Protein intake was essential to prevent weight loss and mortality, but a protein intake target of about 7 kJ/d (about 15 % of energy intake) was identified, above which no further benefit was gained. High protein intake was associated with delayed wound healing and increased liver and spleen weight. As the GF study demonstrated that an initial very high protein intake prevented mortality, a very high-protein, moderate-carbohydrate diet (P40:C42:F18) was specifically designed. The dynamic diet study was also designed to combine and validate the benefits of an initial very high protein intake for mortality, and subsequent moderate protein, high carbohydrate intake for optimal wound healing. The dynamic feeding experiment showed switching from an initial very high-protein diet to the optimal moderate-protein, high-carbohydrate diet accelerated wound healing whilst preventing mortality and liver enlargement.
Hot carrier based methods constitute a valuable approach for efficient and silicon compatible sub-bandgap photodetection. Although, hot electron excitation and transfer have been studied extensively on traditional materials such as Au and Ti, reports on alternative materials such as titanium nitride (TiN) are rare. Here, we perform hot hole photodetection measurements on a p-Si/metal thin film junction using Ti, Au and TiN. This material is of interest as it constitutes a refractory alternative to Au which is an important property for plasmonic applications where high field intensities can occur. In contrast to Au, a TiN/Si junction does not suffer from metal diffusion into the Si, which eases the integration with current Si-fabrication techniques. This work shows that a backside illuminated p-Si/TiN system can be used for efficient hot hole extraction in the IR, allowing for a responsivity of 1 mA/W at an excitation wavelength of 1250 nm and at zero bias. Via a comparison between TiN and other commonly used materials such as Au, the origin of this comparably high photoresponse can be traced back to be directly linked to a thin TiO2-x interfacial layer allowing for a distinct hot-hole transfer mechanism. Moreover, the fabrication of TiN nanodisk arrays is demonstrated which bears great promise to further boost the device efficiency.
Magnesium alloys usually lack “operative deformation slip mechanisms” because of their hexagonal close-packed structure. Therefore, the mechanical behavior of magnesium alloys at different temperatures is dictated by other deformation mechanisms such as twinning, detwinning, secondary twinning, or dynamic recrystallization (DRX). Twinning and DRX can affect the development of grain size and orientation distribution, as well as the deformation behavior of magnesium alloys. The current understanding of the mechanisms and mechanics of these different deformation modes and their implementation in crystal plasticity-based modeling are highlighted in this article. Future directions in the development of constitutive models are also discussed.