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Intrauterine myocardial infarction is a rare and frequently fatal diagnosis. It has been presented in the literature only as case reports and short series. We present a case report of a coronary occlusive intrauterine myocardial infarction and survival and present a systematic review of the literature. This is the first summative description of current data on intrauterine and perinatal myocardial infarction. We performed the systematic review based on the guidelines established by the PRISMA statement. Our population of intrauterine and perinatal myocardial infarction included published cases who presented as a live birth within the first 28 postnatal days, and had a diagnosis of myocardial infarction. We conducted descriptive statistics and regression analysis on short-term mortality as the primary outcome. After applying exclusion criteria we described 84 individual cases of myocardial infarction from 63 full-text articles including our own case. Presentation within the first 12 hours was associated with mortality (OR 3.90, p=0.004). Treatment modalities were varied and inconsistently recorded. The aetiologies and comorbidities are varied in our systematic review. We would have a low threshold to perform viral testing, consider anticoagulation early and coronary imaging if feasible. The use of extracorporeal membranous oxygenation may serve as a bridge to cardiac recovery.
We present a description of the pathlength compensation system used in the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer, and report on the method of fringe tracking that is being implemented. The components of this system are discussed, including the PAPA camera used to detect chromatic fringes, the fringe tracking servo, the delay line and its control.
The ANTARES accelerator mass spectrometry facility at Lucas Heights Research Laboratory is operational and AMS measurements of 14C, 26Al and 36Cl are being carried out routinely. Measurement of 129I recently commenced and capabilities for other long-lived radioisotopes such as 10Be are being established. The overall aim of the facility is to develop advanced programs in Quaternary science, global climate change, biomedicine and nuclear safeguards.
The Papa camera is a photon-counting array detector that uses optical encoding to locate photon events on the output of a microchannel plate image intensifier. The Sydney University camera is a 256×256 pixel detector which can operate at speeds greater than 1 million photons per second and produce individual photon coordinates with a deadtime of only 300 ns. It uses a new Gray coded mask-plate which permits a simplified optical alignment and successfully guards against vignetting artifacts.
The Commission was created in 2006, in response to an initiative by members of the international interferometry community, and as a natural expansion of the work of the earlier Working Group on Optical/Infrared Interferometry. At that time, optical interferometry had been in regular use in modern astronomy for approximately 20 years, primarily with first and second generation prototype and experimental facilities. Also at this time, the first observatory-scale user facilities were coming into operation at ESO, Keck, and CHARA.
Whatever their other disagreements, most students of early modern judicial records agree that by the end of the sixteenth century England's criminal courts were busier than ever before. Studies by Joel Samaha, J.S. Cockburn, Keith Wrightson and J.A. Sharpe all point to an increase in the level of criminal prosecutions, and in particular to an increase in prosecutions for property crime. These changes in turn suggest a change in actual behaviour: apparently more people were stealing more often. Such a conclusion becomes more convincing when one recalls the state of the Elizabethan economy. By at least the 1580's the economic expansion of the sixteenth century was beginning to give way to crisis. England's society and economy suffered the combined effects of war, harvest failure, plague and industrial stagnation. Mortality and food prices rose, wages and employment opportunities shrank, and poverty became more pronounced.
Pacific salmon (see Table 10–1 for more information about terms in bold) enjoy iconic status in northwestern North America. As key components of both freshwater (Schindler et al. 2003) and marine (Beamish 2005) ecosystems, salmon play an important biological role in community structure and function. But salmon are no less crucial to the fabric of human societies. They have provided important food resources to Native Americans for at least 10,000 years (Butler & O'Connor 2004) and figure prominently in cultural, social, and economic traditions. Over the last ~200 years following European settlement, Pacific salmon have supported substantial commercial and sport fisheries, as well as continuing tribal harvest. Renowned for their long migrations and strong homing instinct, salmon have long been symbolic of Northwestern beauty and culture for human inhabitants of the region.
However, Pacific salmon also face a wide range of challenges to their persistence, due largely to major anthropogenic changes to their ecosystems (National Research Council 1996; Lackey et al. 2006). Urbanization, dams, road construction, harvesting, logging, mining, ranching, hatcheries, agriculture, invasive species, and other forms of habitat modification have all taken their toll on salmon populations. As a consequence, approximately 30% of historic salmon populations in the contiguous United States have been extirpated (Gustafson et al. 2007), and half of those that remain are formally protected under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) (Table 10–2).
Commission 54 held its business meeting on 11 August 2009 at “Botequim” at Rua Visconde de Caravelas 184/186, Humaitá, Botafogo, Rio de Janeiro. Individual members in attendance reported on activities of relevance to C54.
The appearance of Shostakovich's Second Symphony on a gramophone record some time ago, and its public performance at a BBC symphony concert in London last October, marked its emergence from a period of over forty years of almost total neglect. Bearing the subtitle ‘To October: A symphonic Dedication’, it was composed in 1927 (two years after the highly successful First Symphony, which had established the composer's international reputation) in response to a commission from the State for a work to commemorate the tenth anniversary of the 1917 October Revolution. But while the score bears as its heading words from the Communist Manifesto, ‘Workers (Proletarians) of the World, Unite’, and the composer's avowed intention is ‘proletarian’, the musical idiom is often far removed from this. The symphony was given its first performance in Leningrad on the 6 November 1927, and as Dmitri Rabinovich, Shostakovich's Russian biographer, says in his book, “got a fairly good press but after a few performances disappeared from the repertoire”.
Multisymplecticity and the variational bicomplex are two subjects which have developed independently. Our main observation is that re-analysis of multisymplectic systems from the view of the variational bicomplex not only is natural but also generates new fundamental ideas about multisymplectic Hamiltonian PDEs. The variational bicomplex provides a natural grading of differential forms according to their base and fibre components, and this structure generates a new relation between the geometry of the base, covariant multisymplectic PDEs and the conservation of symplecticity. Our formulation also suggests a new view of Noether theory for multisymplectic systems, leading to a definition of multimomentum maps that we apply to give a coordinate-free description of multisymplectic relative equilibria. Our principal example is the class of multisymplectic systems on the total exterior algebra bundle over a Riemannian manifold.
Following the dramatic No votes in the French and Dutch referendums on 29 May and 1 June 2005, a need was felt in the European constitutional law profession to react to the shock.
EuConst invited members of its Board and members of the European Constitutional Law Network to write a short comment about possible and possibly salutary effects of the events on the ways of European scholarship and teaching. Below are the reactions received. Authors are all members of ECLN and/or the Board of EuConst.
The contributions to this issue of EuConst by Jacques Ziller, Sacha Prechal and Herman van Gunsteren carry their comments on the events incorporated.
The Norse colonisation or landnám of the North Atlantic islands of the Faroes, Iceland, and Greenland from the ninth century AD onwards provides opportunities to examine human environmental impacts on ‘pristine’ landscapes on an environmental gradient from warmer, more maritime conditions in the east to colder, more continental conditions in the west. This paper considers key environmental contrasts across the Atlantic and initial settlement impacts on the biota and landscape. Before landnám, the modes of origin of the biota (which resulted in boreo-temperate affinities), a lack of endemic species, limited diversity, and no grazing mammals on the Faroes or Iceland, were crucial in determining environmental sensitivity to human impact and, in particular, the impact of introduced domestic animals. Gathering new data and understanding their geographical patterns and changes through time are seen as crucial when tackling fundamental questions about human interactions with the environment, which are relevant to both understanding the past and planning for the future.
The diagnosis of diarrhoea, due to the numerous causative factors, requires a multidisciplinary investigative approach. This chapter deals with several investigative procedures and laboratory tests.
The sections in this chapter are not prioritized to reflect greater importance to a particular specialty. For example, the decision whether to first request a stool microscopy and culture to identify an enteric pathogen or to request a double contrast barium study depends on the clinical circumstances.
Sigmoidoscopy is an extremely rewarding investigation and should be regarded as mandatory before a barium enema is performed. Sigmoidoscopy may reveal the presence of a tumour, lesions suggesting inflammatory bowel disease, ulceration due to infectious colitis, or plaques characteristic of pseudomembraneous colitis. In patients with proven bacillary dysentery, sigmoidoscopy is an extremely painful procedure and is unnecessary. A high rectal swab should be sent for immediate examination if a parasitic infection, for example amoebic dysentery, is suspected.
In diarrhoea suggesting large bowel pathology (diarrhoea with blood and mucus), the choice of the initial investigation lies between a double contrast barium enema (DCBE) and colonoscopy. In a study of 76 patients with colonic disease, colonoscopy was more accurate, particularly in the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease, where DCBE missed the diagnosis in 9 (64 per cent) of 14 patients. The advantages of colonoscopy include the opportunities to obtain biopsies and remove polyps.
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