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Data-driven learning (DDL; Johns, 1991), involving students’ hands-on use of corpora for self-guided language learning, is a methodology now increasingly used in many tertiary contexts to enhance the teaching of disciplinary postgraduate thesis writing. However, there are still few studies tracking students’ actual engagement with corpora for DDL. This mixed-methods study reports on the tracking of students’ corpus use via a purpose-built corpus query and data visualisation platform integrated into a large postgraduate disciplinary thesis writing program at a university in Hong Kong. Data on corpus usage history (e.g. times of access, duration of use), query syntax (e.g. query lexis/phraseology and use of wildcards and part-of-speech tags), query function (e.g. frequency lists/distribution, concordance sorting and collocation) and query filters (e.g. searches by faculty, discipline, or thesis section) were collected from 327 students spanning over 11,000 individual corpus queries. The results show significant interdisciplinary and inter-/intra-user trends and variation in the use of particular corpus functions and query syntax adopted by corpus users. Students varied in the type of knowledge (e.g. domain-specific, language-specific) they were accessing, and frequently went beyond the exemplars of the DDL course materials to generate unique queries under their own initiative. Qualitative case study data from three corpus users’ activity logs also show distinctive individual corpus engagement by query frequency and function. These data provide a clearer insight into what students actually do during DDL and the different directions and trajectories that individual users take as a result of DDL. All accompanying DDL tasks are also included as supplementary materials.
To evaluate the nutritional situation of the victims of the 2010 landslide disaster in Uganda, food varieties consumed and coping strategies were assessed.
Cross-sectional. Food variety scores (FVS) were obtained as the total of food items eaten over the last week while an index was based on severity weighting of household food insecurity coping strategies. We included 545 affected and 533 control households.
Victims in the affected Bududa district in Eastern Uganda and those victims resettled in the Kiryandongo district, Western Uganda.
Adjusted for covariates, in Bududa significantly higher mean FVS were observed among: affected than controls; farmers than others; and relief food recipients. Control households scored higher means (se) on severity of coping: 28·6 (1·3) v. 19·2 (1·2; P<0·01). In Kiryandongo, significantly higher FVS were observed among: control households; household heads educated above primary school; those with assets that complement food source; and recipients of relief food. Severity of coping was significantly higher among affected households and non-recipients of relief food. Affected households had a higher likelihood to skip a day without eating a household meal in Bududa (OR=2·31; 95 % CI 1·62, 3·29; P<0·01) and Kiryandongo (OR=1·77; 95 % CI 1·23, 2·57; P<0·01).
Whereas FVS and severity of coping showed opposite trends in the two districts, resettlement into Kiryandongo led to severe coping experiences. Administrative measures that provide a combination of relief food, social protection and resettlement integration may offset undesirable coping strategies affecting diet.
In 2010, a landslide in Bududa, Eastern Uganda, killed about 350 people and nearly 1000 affected households were resettled in Kiryandongo, Western Uganda. A cross-sectional survey assessed household food insecurity and diet diversity among 1078 affected and controls. In Bududa, the affected had a lower adjusted mean score of food insecurity than controls – 9·2 (se 0·4) v. 12·3 (se 0·4) (P<0·01) – but higher diet diversity score (DDS) – 7·1 (se 0·1) v. 5·9 (se 0·1) (P<0·01). On controlling for disaster and covariates, recipients of relief food had higher food insecurity – 12·0 (se 0·6) v. 10·4 (se 0·3) (P=0·02) – whereas farmers had higher DDS – 6·6 (se 0·2) v. 5·6 (se 0·3) (P<0·01). Household size increased the likelihood of food insecurity (OR 1·15; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·32; P<0·05) but reduced DDS (OR 0·93; 95 % CI 0·87, <1·00; P=0·04). Low DDS was more likely in disaster affected (OR 4·22; 95 % CI 2·65, 6·72; P<0·01) and farmers (OR 2·52; 95 % CI 1·37, 4·64; P<0·01). In Kiryandongo, affected households had higher food insecurity – 12·3 (se 0·8) v. 2·6 (se 0·8) (P<0·01) – but lower DDS – 5·8 (se 0·3) v. 7·0 (se 0·3) (P=0·02). The latter reduced with increased age (OR 0·99; 95 % CI 0·97, 1·00; P<0·05), lowest education (OR 0·54; 95 % CI 0·31, 0·93; P=0·03), farmers (OR 0·59; 95 % CI 0·35, 0·98; P=0·04) and asset ownership (OR 0·56; 95 % CI 0·39, 0·81; P<0·01). Addressing social protection could mitigate food insecurity.
Health is an important aspect of individuals’ lives as they age. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of sociodemographic factors, diagnosed chronic health conditions, and current depression with attitudes to aging in midlife.
A cross-sectional baseline analysis was conducted on the first 300 participants from the Canterbury Health, Ageing and Life Course study in New Zealand, a stratified randomized community longitudinal study of adults recruited between 49 and 51 years. Attitudes were measured using the Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire (AAQ) and analyzed with a range of prevalent diagnosed chronic conditions, current depression, and sociodemographic variables.
Individuals perceived their physical aging more negatively after a diagnosis of hypertension, arthritis or asthma. Diagnosed lifetime depression and anxiety, and current depression, showed strong relationships with attitudes to aging across domains. After controlling for sociodemographic factors and current depression, individuals with diagnosed hypertension, arthritis, asthma, lifetime depression or anxiety continued to report significantly more negative attitudes to aging. Current depression showed the strongest associations with attitudes to aging and mediated relationships of health on attitudes to aging.
Physical and mental health are related to attitudes to aging. Most chronic conditions examined are significantly associated with attitudes toward aging in the physical change domain. Diagnosed lifetime depression and anxiety, and current depression, are negatively related across attitudinal domains. Individuals can feel positive about aging while experiencing poorer health, but this is more difficult in the presence of low mood.
Health-care access is associated with improved control of multiple chronic diseases, but the association between health-care access and weight change is unclear. The present study aims to test the association between health-care access and weight change.
The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study is a multicentre population-based prospective study. Weight change was calculated at 3 and 13 years after CARDIA year 7 (1992–1993). Health-care access was defined as no barriers or one or more barriers to access (health insurance gap, no usual source of care, not seeking care due to expense). Intermediary variables evaluated included history of dieting and use of diet pills, meal replacements or weight-control programmes.
Four cities in the USA.
Participants were aged 18–30 years at baseline (1985–1986). Analyses include 3922 black and white men and women with relevant data from CARDIA years 7, 10 and 20 (1992–1993, 1995–1996 and 2005–2006, respectively).
Mean weight change was +2·22 kg (+4·9 lb) by 3 years and +8·48 kg (+18·7 lb) by 13 years, with no differences by health-care access. Being on a weight-reducing diet was not consistently associated with health-care access across examinations. Use of diet pills, meal replacements or organized weight-control programmes was low, and did not vary by health-care access.
Weight gain was high irrespective of health-care access. Public health and clinical approaches are needed to address weight gain.
A detailed study of the interdiffusion and resistivity of Cu/Au, Cu/Co/ Co/Au and Cu/Co/Au thin film structures was carried out at temperatures ranging from 25 to 550°C1. Both Cu and Au, in the Cu/Au structure, intermix readily even at temperatures as low as 150°C and the interdiffusion is accompanied by rapid increase in resistivity. Very little interdiffusion occurs in the Cu/Co, Co/Au or Cu/Co/Au thin film structures up to about 400°C, after which the resistivity increases. The very rapid increase in resistivity observed at 250°C for the Cu/Au system and at 450°C for Cu/Co/Au, is associated with recrystallization of the films into large grains and the formation of AuCu, Cu3Au and Cu3Au2 compounds. The Cu/Co/Au structure recrystallizes at a higher temperature because of the time needed for Cu and Au to diffuse through the Co layer, which did not react significantly with either Au or Cu.
Nanoscale TiSi2 islands are formed by electon beam deposition of a few monolayers of titanium followed by in situ annealing at high temperatures (800–1000°C). The typical island sizes were ˜10 nm. Electrical characteristics of these islands were probed using UHV-STM. I-V spectroscopies on these islands show single electron tunneling effects such as Coulomb blockade and Coulomb staircase at room temperature.
The strain distribution inside and in the vicinity of coherently strained self-organized islands has been investigated by high-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD). Finite element method (FEM) calculations were carried out in order to calculate the strain field, which was then used to simulate x-ray reciprocal space maps on the basis of kinematical scattering theory. For Si0 75Ge0.25 islands an abrupt increase in the Ge-concentration at about one third of the island height has been found. This behavior can be attributed to different nucleation stages during growth. Highly strained buried CdSe quantum dots (QDs) strongly influence the surrounding ZnSe matrix. From reciprocal space maps and FEM simulations we were able to estimate the shape and size of the islands. The results are in agreement with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UHV atomic force microscopy (AFM) data.
Research concerning the crystal chemistry of hexavalent U by the Environmental Mineralogy and Crystal Structures research group at Notre Dame has resulted in the description of more than 110 new structures of uranyl compounds (including 36 minerals). New insights into the crystal chemistry of U6+ are presented, with emphasis on recently discovered novel structural connectivities. The structural hierarchy of uranyl minerals and compounds, which was first established for 180 structures in 1996, has been extended to include 145 new structures. The hierarchy is based upon polymerization of polyhedra containing higher-valence cations, and consists of five distinct classes: structures containing isolated polyhedra (7), finite clusters of polyhedra (41), chains of polyhedra (52), sheets of polyhedra (184), and frameworks of polyhedra (41). The dominance of sheets in uranyl compounds (57% of known structures) arises from the unequal distribution of bond-valences within the uranyl polyhedra. Topological relations of the sheets in uranyl compounds are best understood by analysis of the topological distribution of anions within sheets in which sharing of polyhedral edges dominates, and by graphical representation of the connectivity of polyhedra in cases where sharing of vertices of polyhedra dominates the sheet.
The formation of self-assembled quantum dots (QD) is of increasing interest for applications in optical, nanoelectronic, biological and quantum computing systems. From the perspective of fabrication technology, there are great advantages if the whole device can be made using a single Si substrate. Furthermore, GeSi is a model semiconductor system for fundamental studies of growth and material properties. In practice, as the MBE growth of heterostructures is inherently a non-equilibrium process, the formation of self-assembled nanostructures is both complex and sensitive to growth and overgrowth conditions. The morphology, structure and composition of QDs can all change during growth. It is therefore crucial to understand their structures at different stages of growth at the atomic scale. Here, the characterization of QD growth using high-resolution high angle annular dark field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging is presented. Both the formation of uncapped QDs and the effect of the encapsulation are investigated, and the morphological and compositional evolution of the QDs and wetting layers are observed directly at the atomic scale for the first time. During encapsulation, the Ge content in the centres of the QD remains unchanged, despite significant intermixing, lateral spreading and a laterally inhomogeneous Ge distribution inside the Ge QD. The initial non-uniform wetting layer for the uncapped Ge QD becomes uniform after encapsulation, and a 3-monolayer-thick core with ∼ 60% Ge content is formed in the 2 nm-thick wetting layer with an average Ge content of ∼ 30%. The results were obtained by direct analysis of the Z-contrast STEM imaging without involving complex image simulations.
The mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs is not fully understood. Application of genomic methods enables the identification of biochemical pathways that are regulated by antidepressants, and this may provide novel clues to the molecular and cellular actions of these drugs. The present study examined gene expression profiles in the hippocampus of rats exposed to chronic antidepressant treatment.
Animals were treated for 12 days with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine; then, hippocampal ribonucleic acid was recovered, and changes in gene expression were assessed by microarray analysis.
A total of 160 genes that showed differential expression after paroxetine exposure were identified. Using functional relevance and observed fold change as selection criteria, the expression changes in a subset of these genes were confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
Of this subset, only two genes, cyclin D1 (Ccnd1) and hairy and enhancer of split 6 (Hes6), showed robust and consistent changes in expression. Both genes were downregulated by paroxetine, and both have been previously implicated in neurogenesis. Further investigation of these two genes may provide new insight into the mechanism of action of antidepressants.
Previous studies have suggested that antidepressant treatment of depression may potentiate dopamine transmission through increased sensitivity of postsynaptic D2 receptors.
D2 receptor function was assessed in 24 patients with major depression before and 16 patients after 16 weeks of treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) using a challenge with a selective D2 antagonist, sulpiride. Four hundred milligrams of sulpiride was administered orally on two test days and response was measured by the change in prolactin levels and changes in self-rating scale measures of mood, anxiety and pleasure.
The prolactin response to sulpiride (as measured by the maximum prolactin level) was significantly increased after CBT (z = −2.792, p = 0.005). Sulpiride resulted in an improvement on mood ratings on both test days, but after CBT, this effect was significantly diminished as measured by the Profile of Mood States score (t = −2.27, p = 0.038).
After 16 weeks of CBT, we detected an enhanced prolactin response to sulpiride, suggesting an increased sensitivity of D2 receptor functioning.
There has been a long interest in the relationship between folate and depression.
In this paper, we report baseline measures of red cell folate that were collected during a randomized trial of 107 patients with major depression. Red cell folate levels were examined for association with percentage improvement in depressive symptoms during treatment with fluoxetine or nortriptyline. The influences of possible confounding factors were assessed.
The low red cell folate group (defined in relation to the median) had a significantly poorer response to nortriptyline. This effect of red cell folate levels was not present in those treated with fluoxetine. No relationships were found between red cell folate levels and possible confounding factors of age, nutritional status, alcohol history, depression subtype, depression severity and chronicity of depression.
Response to nortriptyline was affected by red cell folate status. It may, therefore, be beneficial to consider folate augmentation in patients with major depression, particularly if treated with nortriptyline.
Interpersonal psychotherapy and cognitive–behavioural therapy are widely accepted as effective treatments for major depression. There is little evidence on how personality disorder or personality traits affect treatment response.
To determine whether personality disorder or traits have an adverse impact on treatment response to interpersonal psychotherapy or cognitive–behavioural therapy in people receiving out-patient treatment for depression.
The study was a randomised trial in a university-based clinical research unit for out-patients with depression.
Personality disorder did not adversely affect treatment response for patients with depression randomised to cognitive–behavioural therapy Conversely, personality disorder did adversely affect treatment response for patients randomised to interpersonal psychotherapy.
Despite the two therapies having comparable efficacy in patients with depression, response to interpersonal psychotherapy (but not cognitive–behavioural therapy) is affected by personality traits. This could suggest the two therapies are indicated for different patients or that they work by different mechanisms.
Interpersonal psychotherapy and cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) are established as effective treatments for major depression. Controversy remains regarding their effectiveness for severe and melancholic depression.
To compare the efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy and CBT in people receiving out-patient treatment for depression and to explore response in severe depression (Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score above 30), and in melancholic depression.
Randomised clinical trial of 177 patients with a principal Axis I diagnosis of major depressive disorder receiving 16 weeks of therapy comprising 8–19 sessions. Primary outcome was improvement in MADRS score from baseline to end of treatment.
There was no difference between the two psychotherapies in the sample as a whole, but CBT was more effective than interpersonal psychotherapy in severe depression, and the response was comparable with that for mild and moder-ate depression. Melancholia did not predict poor response to either psychotherapy.
Both therapies are equally effective for depression but CBT maybe preferred in severe depression.
Previous studies of borderline personality disorder report neuropsychological impairments in several domains, including memory. No studies have compared memory functioning in high-risk prisoners with borderline personality disorder with similar prisoners with other personality disorders.
To explore mnemonic impairments in prisoners undergoing personality assessment as part of the dangerous and severe personality disorder initiative or detained in a medium secure facility.
We investigated memory function in 18 prisoners with borderline personality disorder and 18 prisoners with other personality disorders.
Prisoners with borderline personality disorder exhibited a pattern of multi-modal impairments in the immediate and delayed recall of verbal and visual information, with some association with affective instability. These deficits were not associated with the severity of personality disturbance.
These data suggest that memory deficits have some specificity in relation to the constituent traits of borderline personality disorder and indicate that neuropsychological assessment may be a source of useful adjunctive information for distinguishing between the cognitive and psychological difficulties of individual prisoners.
We assessed the appropriateness of treatments recommended by health shop staff for symptoms of mild-to-moderate depression using participant observation with ten members of staff from ten different health shops selling herbal medicinal preparations.
A wide range of treatment options were suggested by health shop staff when presented with common symptoms of depression. The majority have no firm evidence base, with the exception of St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum).
Most alternative treatments recommended by health shops for the treatment of depression have a poor evidence base. Implications for training and communication between agencies are discussed.
In bulimia nervosa (BN), borderline personality disorder (BPD) and major depression (MDD) are frequently comorbid conditions. Executive function has been found to be impaired in BPD and MDD, but the impact of comorbidity on neuropsychological function has rarely been investigated.
To investigate neuropsychological function in BN with a focus on comorbid BPD and MDD.
One hundred forty-four medication-free female patients entering a study of psychological treatments for BN performed a brief battery of neuropsychological tests. Comorbid MDD and BPD were systematically identified using standard interviews. Neuropsychological test results were compared.
Forty-one subjects had comorbid BPD and 35 had comorbid MDD, while 15 had both. There was no effect of comorbid MDD, but there was a significant effect of BPD and a significant interaction between the diagnosis of MDD and BPD on executive tasks (trail making and Stroop). Thus, compared with subjects without BPD, subjects with BPD performed significantly worse on tests of executive function, while the group with both comorbidities performed even worse.
There appears to be an additive effect of BPD and MDD resulting in impaired executive neuropsychological function. Future studies on either disorder and on BN should examine and account for the effect of comorbidity.