Damage induced in InP wafers by ion implantation has been investigated using Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation from variable-energy positrons (VEP), Rutherford backscattering/channeling (RBS), and room temperature photoluminescence (PL). Si* ions were implanted at 600 keV incident energy to total fluences from 1011 to 1014 ions cm−2. Annealing at room temperature was monitored for ∼100 days, during which both VEP and RBS showed recovery of the crystal toward the pre–implanted condition. RBS measurements of samples annealed at elevated temperatures showed that full restoration of lattice order occurred at 375 K, but VEP data for isochronal annealing up to 720 K showed only a moderate reduction in the vacancy–type defect concentration with a significantly narrower lineshape, consistent with vacancy clustering. PL measurements for MOCVD grown InP layers annealed up to 1100 K after implantation also indicated only moderate defect reduction.