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In clinical settings where airborne pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, are prevalent, they constitute an important threat to health workers and people accessing healthcare. We report key insights from a 3-year project conducted in primary healthcare clinics in South Africa, alongside other recent tuberculosis infection prevention and control (TB-IPC) research. We discuss the fragmentation of TB-IPC policies and budgets; the characteristics of individuals attending clinics with prevalent pulmonary tuberculosis; clinic congestion and patient flow; clinic design and natural ventilation; and the facility-level determinants of the implementation (or not) of TB-IPC interventions. We present modeling studies that describe the contribution of M. tuberculosis transmission in clinics to the community tuberculosis burden and economic evaluations showing that TB-IPC interventions are highly cost-effective. We argue for a set of changes to TB-IPC, including better coordination of policymaking, clinic decongestion, changes to clinic design and building regulations, and budgeting for enablers to sustain implementation of TB-IPC interventions. Additional research is needed to find the most effective means of improving the implementation of TB-IPC interventions; to develop approaches to screening for prevalent pulmonary tuberculosis that do not rely on symptoms; and to identify groups of patients that can be seen in clinic less frequently.
We present the data and initial results from the first pilot survey of the Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU), observed at 944 MHz with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The survey covers
of an area covered by the Dark Energy Survey, reaching a depth of 25–30
rms at a spatial resolution of
11–18 arcsec, resulting in a catalogue of
220 000 sources, of which
180 000 are single-component sources. Here we present the catalogue of single-component sources, together with (where available) optical and infrared cross-identifications, classifications, and redshifts. This survey explores a new region of parameter space compared to previous surveys. Specifically, the EMU Pilot Survey has a high density of sources, and also a high sensitivity to low surface brightness emission. These properties result in the detection of types of sources that were rarely seen in or absent from previous surveys. We present some of these new results here.
We have found a class of circular radio objects in the Evolutionary Map of the Universe Pilot Survey, using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The objects appear in radio images as circular edge-brightened discs, about one arcmin diameter, that are unlike other objects previously reported in the literature. We explore several possible mechanisms that might cause these objects, but none seems to be a compelling explanation.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism contributes to the development of depression (major depressive disorder, MDD), but it is unclear whether neural effects observed in healthy individuals are sustained in MDD.
To investigate BDNF Val66Met effects on key regions in MDD neurocircuitry: amygdala, anterior cingulate, middle frontal and orbitofrontal regions.
Magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired in 79 persons with MDD (mean age 49 years) and 74 healthy volunteers (mean age 50 years). Effects on surface area and cortical thickness were examined with multiple comparison correction.
People who were Met allele carriers showed reduced caudal middle frontal thickness in both study groups. Significant interaction effects were found in the anterior cingulate and rostral middle frontal regions, in which participants in the MDD group who were Met carriers showed the greatest reduction in surface area.
Modulatory effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on distinct subregions in the prefrontal cortex in MDD support the neurotrophin model of depression.