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The lower Mississippian Ballagan Formation of northern Britain is one of only two successions worldwide to yield the earliest known tetrapods with terrestrial capability following the end-Devonian mass extinction event. Studies of the sedimentary environments and habitats in which these beasts lived have been an integral part of a major research project into how, why and under what circumstances this profound step in the evolution of life on Earth occurred. Here, a new palaeogeographic map is constructed from outcrop data integrated with new and archived borehole material. The map shows the extent of a very low-relief coastal wetland developed along the tropical southern continental margin of Laurussia. Coastal floodplains in the Midland Valley and Tweed basins were separated from the marginal marine seaway of the Northumberland–Solway Basin to the south by an archipelago of more elevated areas. A complex mosaic of sedimentary environments was juxtaposed, and included fresh and brackish to saline and hypersaline lakes, a diverse suite of floodplain palaeosols and a persistent fluvial system in the east of the region. The strongly seasonal climate led to the formation of evaporite deposits alternating with flooding events, both meteoric and marine. Storm surges drove marine floods from the SW into both the western Midland Valley and Northumberland–Solway Basin; marine water also flooded into the Tweed Basin and Tayside in the east. The Ballagan Formation is a rare example in the geological record of a tropical, seasonal coastal wetland that contains abundant, small-scale evaporite deposits. The diverse sedimentary environments and palaeosol types indicate a network of different terrestrial and aquatic habitats in which the tetrapods lived.
The success of scaling out depends on a clear understanding of the factors that affect adoption of grain legumes and account for the dynamism of those factors across heterogeneous contexts of sub-Saharan Africa. We reviewed literature on adoption of grain legumes and other technologies in sub-Saharan Africa and other developing countries. Our review enabled us to define broad factors affecting different components of the scaling out programme of N2Africa and the scales at which those factors were important. We identified three strategies for managing those factors in the N2Africa scaling out programme: (i) testing different technologies and practices; (ii) evaluating the performance of different technologies in different contexts; and (iii) monitoring factors that are difficult to predict. We incorporated the review lessons in a design to appropriately target and evaluate technologies in multiple contexts across scales from that of the farm to whole countries. Our implementation of this design has only been partially successful because of competing reasons for selecting activity sites. Nevertheless, we observe that grain legume species have been successfully targeted for multiple biophysical environments across sub-Saharan Africa, and to social and economic contexts within countries. Rhizobium inoculant and legume specific fertiliser blends have also been targeted to specific contexts, although not in all countries. Relatively fewer input and output marketing models have been tested due to public–private partnerships, which are a key mechanism for dissemination in the N2Africa project.
A one-day workshop discussed the properties of shocks in star-forming regions. It also reviewed other physical processes in star-forming molecular gas, and the progress in numerical modelling of such physics. Discussion concentrated on the complexity which instabilities in the gas flow bring to the analysis of shocks. The consensus was that progress will be made as the spatial/spectral resolution of shock measurements improves, and as numerical modelling of the nonlinear growth of instabilities becomes possible, potentially leading to statistical models of shock dynamics.
Evidence is presented to suggest that the shocked molecular hydrogen emission in the brightest part of the Orion outflow is produced in a J-shock and not a C-shock; that this is true throughout the entire flow; that it may be true in many outflow sources; and that this exacerbates problems with current explanations of the very wide velocity profiles observed in molecular hydrogen emission.
In this paper we report on the development of micromachined filters for operation at terahertz frequencies. SU8, a negative photodefinable epoxy, is used to define arrays of high aspect ratio rods which are subsequently sputter coated in gold to form the filter. We fabricate and test a filter with a fixed period but variable diameter along the length of the array. By moving the array in the terahertz beam we demonstrate the ability to mechanically tune specific filter characteristics from a single device.
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