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Five populations of rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin) from fields across cropping regions in southern Australia were suspected of having resistance to thiocarbamates, chloroacetamides, and sulfonylisoxazoline herbicides. Resistant (R) populations 375-14, 198-15, 16.2, EP162, RAC1, and A18 and two susceptible (S) populations (SLR4 and VLR1) were included in a dose–response study. All suspected R populations expressed resistance to one or all herbicides (thiocarbamates, chloroacetamides, and pyroxasulfone). Population 198-15 exhibited the highest LD50 to triallate (44.7-fold), prosulfocarb (45.7-fold), S-metolachlor (31.5-fold), and metazachlor (27.2-fold) compared with the S populations. Populations 198-15 and 375-14 were also resistant to pyroxasulfone (13.5- and 14.9-fold) compared with the S populations, as was population EP162. This study documents the first case of field-evolved resistance to thiocarbamate, chloroacetamide, and sulfonylisoxazoline herbicides in L. rigidum.
A population of rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin) from a field on the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia, was suspected of resistance to thiocarbamate herbicides. Dose–response studies were conducted on this population (EP162) and two susceptible populations (SLR4 and VLR1). The resistant population exhibited cross-resistance to triallate, prosulfocarb, EPTC, and thiobencarb with higher LD50 to triallate (14.9-fold), prosulfocarb (9.4-fold), EPTC (9.7-fold), and thiobencarb (13.6-fold) compared with the susceptible populations SLR4 and VLR1. The resistant population also displayed resistance to trifluralin, pyroxasulfone, and propyzamide. The LD50 of the resistant population was higher for trifluralin (13.8-fold), pyroxasulfone (8.1-fold), and propyzamide (2.7-fold) compared with the susceptible populations. This study documents the first case of field-evolved resistance to thiocarbamate herbicides in L. rigidum.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To build a multisite de-identified database of female adolescents, aged 12–21 years (January 2011–December 2012), and their subsequent offspring through 24 months of age from electronic health records (EHRs) provided by participating Community Health. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We created a community-academic partnership that included New York City Community Health Centers (n=4) and Hospitals (n=4), The Rockefeller University, The Sackler Institute for Nutrition Science and Clinical Directors Network (CDN). We used the Community-Engaged Research Navigation model to establish a multisite de-identified database extracted from EHRs of female adolescents aged 12–21 years (January 2011–December 2012) and their offspring through 24 months of age. These patients received their primary care between 2011 and 2015. Clinical data were used to explore possible associations among specific measures. We focused on the preconception, prenatal, postnatal periods, including pediatric visits up to 24 months of age. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The analysis included all female adolescents (n=122,556) and a subset of pregnant adolescents with offspring data available (n=2917). Patients were mostly from the Bronx; 43% of all adolescent females were overweight (22%) or obese (21%) and showed higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose levels, hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, and triglycerides levels compared with normal-weight adolescent females (p<0.05). This analysis was also performed looking at the nonpregnant females and the pregnant females separately. Overall, the pregnant females were older (mean age=18.3) compared with the nonpregnant females (mean age=16.5), there was a higher percentage of Hispanics among the pregnant females (58%) compared with the nonpregnant females (43.9%). There was a statistically significant association between the BMI status of mothers and infants’ birth weight, with underweight/normal-weight mothers having more low birth weight (LBW) babies and overweight/obese mothers having more large babies. The odds of having a LBW baby was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.89) lower in obese compared with normal-weight adolescent mothers. The risk of having a preterm birth before 37 weeks was found to be neutral in obese compared with normal-weight adolescent mothers (OR=0.81, 95% CI: 0.53, 1.25). Preliminary associations are similar to those reported in the published literature. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This EHR database uses available measures from routine clinical care as a “rapid assay” to explore potential associations, and may be more useful to detect the presence and direction of associations than the magnitude of effects. This partnership has engaged community clinicians, laboratory, and clinical investigators, and funders in study design and analysis, as demonstrated by the collaborative development and testing of hypotheses relevant to service delivery. Furthermore, this research and learning collaborative is examining strategies to enhance clinical workflow and data quality as well as underlying biological mechanisms. The feasibility of scaling-up these methods facilitates studying similar populations in different Health Systems, advancing point-of-care studies of natural history and comparative effectiveness research to identify service gaps, evaluate effective interventions, and enhance clinical and data quality improvement.
Research reviews highlight methodological limitations and gaps in the evidence base for the arts in dementia care. In response, we developed a 12-week visual art program and evaluated the impact on people living with dementia through a mixed-methods longitudinal investigation.
One hundred and twenty-five people living with mild to severe dementia were recruited across three research settings in England and Wales (residential care homes, a county hospital, and community venues). Quantitative and qualitative data on quality of life (QoL), communication and perceptions of the program were obtained through interviews and self-reports with participants and their carers. Eight domains of well-being were measured using a standardized observation tool, and data compared to an alternative activity with no art.
Across all sites, scores for the well-being domains of interest, attention, pleasure, self-esteem, negative affect, and sadness were significantly better in the art program than the alternative condition. Proxy-reported QoL significantly improved between baseline and 3-month follow-up, but no improvements in QoL were reported by the participants with dementia. This was contrasted by their qualitative accounts, which described a stimulating experience important for social connectedness, well-being, and inner-strength. Communication deteriorated between baseline and follow-up in the hospital setting, but improved in the residential care setting.
The findings highlight the potential for creative aging within dementia care, the benefits of art activities and the influence of the environment. We encourage dementia care providers and arts and cultural services to work toward embedding art activities within routine care provision.
Depression and obesity are highly prevalent, and major impacts on public health frequently co-occur. Recently, we reported that having depression moderates the effect of the FTO gene, suggesting its implication in the association between depression and obesity.
To confirm these findings by investigating the FTO polymorphism rs9939609 in new cohorts, and subsequently in a meta-analysis.
The sample consists of 6902 individuals with depression and 6799 controls from three replication cohorts and two original discovery cohorts. Linear regression models were performed to test for association between rs9939609 and body mass index (BMI), and for the interaction between rs9939609 and depression status for an effect on BMI. Fixed and random effects meta-analyses were performed using METASOFT.
In the replication cohorts, we observed a significant interaction between FTO, BMI and depression with fixed effects meta-analysis (β=0.12, P = 2.7 × 10−4) and with the Han/Eskin random effects method (P = 1.4 × 10−7) but not with traditional random effects (β = 0.1, P = 0.35). When combined with the discovery cohorts, random effects meta-analysis also supports the interaction (β = 0.12, P = 0.027) being highly significant based on the Han/Eskin model (P = 6.9 × 10−8). On average, carriers of the risk allele who have depression have a 2.2% higher BMI for each risk allele, over and above the main effect of FTO.
This meta-analysis provides additional support for a significant interaction between FTO, depression and BMI, indicating that depression increases the effect of FTO on BMI. The findings provide a useful starting point in understanding the biological mechanism involved in the association between obesity and depression.
Windmillgrass is a major weed in agricultural systems in northern Australia, and it has now become more common in southern Australia. Because little information is available on the biology of this weed species in southern Australia, studies were conducted to investigate plant development and seed biology. Under irrigated field conditions in South Australia, windmillgrass required 748 to 786 growing degree days from emergence to mature seed production. Freshly harvested seed had low dormancy with 16% to 40% germination. Seeds required light exposure for germination and less than 2% germination was observed in complete darkness. Seed could germinate over a wide temperature range (10 to 40 C) with maximum germination at 20 to 25 C. At 25 to 30 C, 50% germination occurred within 27.3 to 45.5 h, and the predicted base temperature for germination of the two populations investigated ranged from 9.2 to 11.2 C. The sodium chloride concentration and osmotic potential required to inhibit germination by 50% were 51 to 73 mM and −0.27 MPa, respectively. Seedling emergence was completely inhibited by burial of seed, which is consistent with its absolute requirement for light exposure to begin germination. Under field conditions, there was no clear effect of burial depth on seed viability in the first 2 yr with average rainfall, and seeds were completely nonviable after 12 mo. However, in the third year, with low spring–summer rainfall, buried seeds (37% viability after 14 mo) persisted longer than those left on the soil surface (6% viability after 14 mo). This study provides important information on plant development and seed biology of windmillgrass that will contribute to the development of a management program for this weed species in southern Australia.
The Numeniini is a tribe of 13 wader species (Scolopacidae, Charadriiformes) of which seven are Near Threatened or globally threatened, including two Critically Endangered. To help inform conservation management and policy responses, we present the results of an expert assessment of the threats that members of this taxonomic group face across migratory flyways. Most threats are increasing in intensity, particularly in non-breeding areas, where habitat loss resulting from residential and commercial development, aquaculture, mining, transport, disturbance, problematic invasive species, pollution and climate change were regarded as having the greatest detrimental impact. Fewer threats (mining, disturbance, problematic native species and climate change) were identified as widely affecting breeding areas. Numeniini populations face the greatest number of non-breeding threats in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, especially those associated with coastal reclamation; related threats were also identified across the Central and Atlantic Americas, and East Atlantic flyways. Threats on the breeding grounds were greatest in Central and Atlantic Americas, East Atlantic and West Asian flyways. Three priority actions were associated with monitoring and research: to monitor breeding population trends (which for species breeding in remote areas may best be achieved through surveys at key non-breeding sites), to deploy tracking technologies to identify migratory connectivity, and to monitor land-cover change across breeding and non-breeding areas. Two priority actions were focused on conservation and policy responses: to identify and effectively protect key non-breeding sites across all flyways (particularly in the East Asian- Australasian Flyway), and to implement successful conservation interventions at a sufficient scale across human-dominated landscapes for species’ recovery to be achieved. If implemented urgently, these measures in combination have the potential to alter the current population declines of many Numeniini species and provide a template for the conservation of other groups of threatened species.
Feather fingergrass is a major weed in agricultural systems in northern Australia and has now spread to southern Australia. To better understand the biology of this emerging weed species, its growth, development, and seed biology were examined. Under field conditions in South Australia, seedlings that emerged after summer rainfall events required 1,200 growing degree days from emergence to mature seed production and produced 700 g m−2 shoot biomass. Plants produced up to 1,000 seeds panicle−1 and more than 40,000 seeds plant−1, with seed weight ranging from 0.36 to 0.46 mg. Harvested seeds were dormant for a period of about 2 mo and required 5 mo of after-ripening to reach 50% germination. Freshly harvested seed could be released from dormancy by pretreatment with 564 mM sodium hypochlorite for 30 min. Light significantly increased germination. Seed could germinate over a wide temperature range (10 to 40 C), with maximum germination at 15 to 25 C. At 20 to 25 C, 50% germination was reached within 2.7 to 3.3 d, and the predicted base temperature to germinate was 2.1 to 3.0 C. The osmotic potential and NaCl concentration required to inhibit germination by 50% were −0.16 to −0.20 MPa and 90 to 124 mM, respectively. Seedling emergence was highest (76%) for seeds present on soil surface and was significantly reduced by burial at 1 (57%), 2 (49%), and 5 cm (9%). Under field conditions, seeds buried in the soil persisted longer than those left on the soil surface, and low spring–summer rainfall increased seed persistence. This study provides important information on growth, development, and seed biology of feather fingergrass that will contribute to the development of a more effective management program for this weed species in Australia.
Linear instability waves, or wavepackets, are key building blocks for the jet-noise problem. It has been shown in previous work that linear models correctly predict the evolution of axisymmetric wavepackets up to the end of the potential core of subsonic turbulent jets. Beyond this station, linear models fail, and nonlinearity is the likely missing piece. The essential underlying nonlinear mechanisms are unknown, and it remains unclear how these should be incorporated in a reduced-order model. The nonlinear interactions are considered in this work as an ‘external’ harmonic forcing added to the standard linear model. This modelling framework is explored using a locally parallel resolvent analysis to determine optimal forcing and associated responses, and a global approach based on 4D-Var data assimilation aimed at finding the optimal forcing of the parabolised stability equations that would minimise errors in the predictions of wavepackets. In all of the problems considered, the critical layer is found to be relevant: it is the position where sensitivity of wavepackets to nonlinearity is greatest. It is seen that disturbances are forced around the critical layer, and tilted by shear as they are advected, in a manner suggestive of an Orr-like mechanism. The ensemble of results suggests that critical-layer effects play a central role in the dynamics of wavepackets in subsonic turbulent jets, and that inclusion of such effects may remedy the shortcomings of linear reduced-order models.
We analyse evolutionary tracks at young ages for low mass stars with masses m ≤ 1.4 M⊙ and brown dwarfs down to one mass of Jupiter. We analyse current theoretical uncertainties due to initial conditions. Simple tests on initial conditions show the high uncertainties of models at ages ≲ 1 Myr.
We present evolutionary models for young low mass stars (m ≤ 1M⊙) based on recent improvement of the theory: equation of state, atmosphere models, etc. We concentrate on early evolutionary phases from the initial deuterium burning phase to the zero-age Main Sequence. Evolutionary models for young brown dwarfs are also presented. We discuss the uncertainties of the present models. We analyse the difficulties arising when comparing models with observations for very young objects, in particular concerning the problem of reddening.
Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicides affect fatty acid biosynthesis in plants and are widely used to control smooth and hare barley in dicot crops in Australia. Recently, growers have experienced difficulty in controlling smooth and hare barley with herbicides from this mode of action. Dose–response experiments conducted on five suspected resistant populations confirmed varying levels of resistance to quizalofop and haloxyfop. The level of resistance in these populations was greater than 27-fold to quizalofop and greater than 15-fold to haloxyfop. The quizalofop dose required to reduce shoot biomass by 50% (GR50) for the resistant populations varied from 52.6 to 111.9 g ha−1, and for haloxyfop from 26.5 to 71.3 g ha−1. Sequencing the CT domain of the ACCase gene from resistant plants of different populations confirmed the presence of previously known mutations Ile1781Leu and Gly2096Ala. Amino acid substitution at the 2096 position conferred a greater level of resistance to haloxyfop than the substitution at the 1781 position. This study documents the first known case of field-evolved target-site resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in Australian populations of smooth barley.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients often present with prospective memory (PM) dysfunction. Forgetting to complete tasks may result in a loss of independence, limited employment prospects and anxiety, therefore, it is important to develop programs to improve PM performance in TBI patients. A strategy which may improve PM performance is implementation intentions. It involves making explicit plans specifying when, where and how one will perform a task in the future. In the present study, a group of 36 TBI patients and a group of 34 controls performed Virtual Week using either implementation intentions or no strategy. The results showed that the PM performance of TBI patients was less accurate than controls, in particular when the PM cue was time-based. No effect of implementation intentions was observed for TBI patients, however, controls improved their PM performance when the task was time-based. The findings suggest that strategies to improve PM in this clinical group are likely to be more complex than those that benefit healthy adults and may involve targeting phases of the PM process other than, or in addition to, the intention formation phase. (JINS, 2015, 21, 305–313)
The Fezzan Project is investigating the last 10,000 years of human settlement, landscape evolution and climatic change in the Germa region in southern Libya. The second season in February–March 1998 comprised interdisciplinary research in archaeology and geography, centred around excavation and survey work carried out at the site of Old Germa. To date, three phases of mud brick buildings have been partially explored. In addition, wider geomorphological study and archaeological survey and fieldwalking were carried out elsewhere in the Germa/Twesh oasis and around el-Hatiya. Numerous sites were discovered, including a new hillfort of Zinchecra type and several valley centre ‘villages’ of Garamantian/Roman date. Artefactual studies were carried out on pottery and lithics, animal bones and seeds. Further work on the subterranean irrigation features, the foggaras, have confirmed their pre-Islamic origins.
The authors regret errors in the reporting of the confidence intervals in the Results section. In relation to the first simple mediation model, the sentence “In this analysis, the β (95% CI) values of the direct effect and indirect effect of marital status on sense of belonging were 1.32 (−2.70, −0.05) and 0.72 (−1.43, −0.01), respectively.” Should read: “In this analysis, the β (95% CI) values of the direct effect and indirect effect of marital status on sense of belonging were 1.32 (−2.70, 0.05) and 0.72 (−1.43, 0.01), respectively.” In relation to the hypothesized mediation model, the sentence “The β (95% CI) values of the direct effect and indirect effect of marital status on suicidal ideation were 0.19 (−0.06, −0.43) and 0.22 (0.11, −0.35), respectively” should read: “The β (95% CI) values of the direct effect and indirect effect of marital status on suicidal ideation were 0.19 (−0.06, 0.43) and 0.22 (0.11, 0.35), respectively.” In relation to the moderated mediation model, the text “The relation between marital status and sense of belonging was significant for men as its bootstrapped 95% CI did not include zero (0.20, −0.67). In contrast, this relation was not significant for women as its bootstrapped 95% CI included zero (−0.03, −0.25)” should read: “The relation between marital status and sense of belonging was significant for men as its bootstrapped 95% CI did not include zero (0.20, 0.67). In contrast, this relation was not significant for women as its bootstrapped 95% CI included zero (−0.03, 0.25).”