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The rate and distance of instantaneous pollen flow in a population are parameters of considerable current interest for plant population geneticists and conservation biologists. We have recently developed an estimator (Φft) of differentiation between the inferred pollen clouds that fertilize several females, sampled within a single population. We have shown that there is a simple relation between Φft and the average pollen dispersal distance (δ) for the case of a population with no geographic structure. Though forest trees usually show considerable pollen flow, assuming an absence of spatially distributed genetic structure is not always wise. Here, we develop analytical theory for the relation between Φft and δ, for the case where the probability of Identity by Descent (IBD) for two individuals decreases with the physical distance between them. This analytical theory allows us to provide an effective method for estimating pollen dispersal distance in a population with adult genetic structure. Using real examples, we show that estimation errors can be large if genetic structure is not taken into account, so it is wise to evaluate adult genetic structure simultaneously with estimation of Φft for the pollen clouds. We show that the results are only moderately affected by changes in the decay function, a result of some importance since no completely established theory is available for this function.
Factor analyses were conducted for the Hamilton depression rating scale (HRS) and the self administered Carroll counterpart (CRS). The factor loadings for the respective first factors were similar; those for the respective second factors showed strict sign consistency but only moderate consistency of magnitude; the loadings for the respective third factors showed no particular consistency. The first three CRS and first three HRS factor scores were computed for each individual and correlations were computed from these factor scores. The first and second factors were highly correlated but the third factors were negatively correlated indicating that they were not measuring the same thing. The first factors of the CRS and HRS correlated highly with their respective raw total scores and were indices of the severity of illness. The self-administered CRS (with matching weights) is a credible alternative to the HRS for routine clinical assessment of the severity of depression.
Patients in an affective disorders out-patient clinic were studied with four depression rating scales: the Hamilton rating scale (HRS) the Carroll rating scale (CRS) a clinical global rating of depression (CGRD) and the visual analogue scale (VAS). The overall correlations between the self ratings (CRS, VAS) and the observer ratings (HRS, CGRD) were highly significant. Both the HRS and the CRS distinguished mild from moderate, and moderate from severe depression. CRS scores increased more rapidly than HRS scores with increasing severity of depression. The concordance of self ratings and observer ratings was highest for the two structured instruments (HRS and CRS), and was lowest for the two global scales (CGRD and VAS). The global scales have the advantages of speed and simplicity, but at the cost of some reliability. Patients with non-endogenous depression had significantly increased self rating scores in comparison to patients with unipolar or bipolar endogenous depression. The correlations between the self ratings and the observer ratings were notably lower in patients with non-endogenous depression than in patients with endogenous depression. Euthymic bipolar patients rated themselves on the VAS as significantly less well than euthymic unipolar patients. The clinical and research implications of these findings are discussed.
The Carroll rating scale (CRS) was developed as a self rating instrument for depression, closely matching the information content and specific items of the Hamilton rating scale (HRS). The CRS was found to have acceptable face validity and reliability. The concurrent validity of the CRS was acceptable, based on comparisons with the HRS and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The internal consistency of the CRS was very similar to that of the HRS. The CRS contained information about HRS scores beyond what could be predicted from BDI scores, but the BDI did not predict HRS scores beyond what could be predicted from CRS scores. The CRS and BDI scores were strongly correlated and both had access to a subjective dimension of depression that could not be predicted from HRS scores. The complementary uses of self ratings and observer ratings are evident from these results. The CRS may be a useful alternative to the BDI as a self rating scale, with the additional advantage of closer correspondence to the HRS.
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