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This article revisits a locus classicus of British Catholic History, the interpretation of the coin-hoard found in 1611 by the Lancashire squire William Blundell of Little Crosby.1 This article offers new information, approaching the Harkirk silver from several perspectives: Mark Blundell offers a memoir of his ancestor William Blundell, as well as lending his voice to the account of the subsequent fate of the Harkirk silver; Professor Jane Stevenson and Professor Peter Davidson reconsider the sources for William Blundell’s historiography as well as considering wider questions of memory and the recusant community; Dr Dora Thornton analyses the silver pyx made from the Harkirk coins in detail, and surveys analogous silverwork in depth.
Objectives: To summarize the clinical characteristics and outcomes of pediatric sports-related concussion (SRC) patients who were evaluated and managed at a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program and examine the healthcare resources and personnel required to meet the needs of this patient population. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all pediatric SRC patients referred to the Pan Am Concussion Program from September 1st, 2013 to May 25th, 2015. Initial assessments and diagnoses were carried out by a single neurosurgeon. Return-to-Play decision-making was carried out by the multidisciplinary team. Results: 604 patients, including 423 pediatric SRC patients were evaluated at the Pan Am Concussion Program during the study period. The mean age of study patients was 14.30 years (SD: 2.32, range 7-19 years); 252 (59.57%) were males. Hockey (182; 43.03%) and soccer (60; 14.18%) were the most commonly played sports at the time of injury. Overall, 294 (69.50%) of SRC patients met the clinical criteria for concussion recovery, while 75 (17.73%) were lost to follow-up, and 53 (12.53%) remained in active treatment at the end of the study period. The median duration of symptoms among the 261 acute SRC patients with complete follow-up was 23 days (IQR: 15, 36). Overall, 25.30% of pediatric SRC patients underwent at least one diagnostic imaging test and 32.62% received referral to another member of our multidisciplinary clinical team. Conclusion: Comprehensive care of pediatric SRC patients requires access to appropriate diagnostic resources and the multidisciplinary collaboration of experts with national and provincially-recognized training in TBI.
This article illustrates and describes in detail a fine central European chasuble of the late c17 which, together with two dalmatics, ‘The Fetternear Vestments,’ were bequeathed to the Diocese of Aberdeen, in 1921 by the Leslie family, many of whom had been distinguished soldiers on the continent and especially in the Empire. After some contextual discussion of the alleged origins of the Leslie family and of their success in Imperial service, the article examines the traditional belief that the vestments, now at the Blairs Museum, Aberdeen, were made for Count James Leslie (c.1621-1694) partly out of Turkish textiles captured in 1683 at the Siege of Vienna. Detailed analysis of the embroidery on the chasuble, especially of the use of metal thread and ‘plate,’ demonstrates that the gold work is indeed of Turkish origin, the rest of the needle work central European, and thus makes the case that this extraordinary hybrid object is indeed a votive vestment made for the Catholic Leslies partly from captured Turkish work.
Little is known about the Endangered Grevy's zebra Equus grevyi in far northern Kenya, where the species exists in small, isolated populations at the periphery of its range. Understanding the threats facing this species is a prerequisite for effective conservation planning but its rarity makes obtaining accurate information challenging. We set out to establish the current status of, and attitudes towards, Grevy's zebra in northern Kenya using local knowledge as the primary source of information. Pastoralists perceived Grevy's zebra to be in decline as a result of drought, lack of pasture and water, and hunting for consumptive use. There was also evidence of competition with livestock. Attitudes towards Grevy's zebra were predominantly positive, influenced by a range of perceived benefits of living alongside the species, and an absence of severe costs. Coupled with evidence of local conservation efforts in several locations, this is a positive starting point for community-based conservation.
This article re-considers Alexander Seton, First Earl of Dunfermline (1555–1622) in his cultural context, particularly in the light of the recently-discovered inventory of his private library. This sophisticated collection of continental books, with strong holdings in art, architecture and Catholic apologetics, offers new information on the intense private Catholicism of a statesman who conformed outwardly to Protestantism. The inventory casts light also on his work of building and decoration at Pinkie House, Musselburgh. The article concludes by raising the possibility of some kind of continuance at Pluscarden Priory in Moray after the reformation and under Seton’s protection, and that Seton’s daughter Sophia may have built a freestanding Catholic chapel on her marriage to David Lindsay, first Lord Balcarres.
Turbulence is ubiquitous in science, technology and daily life and yet, despite years of research, our understanding of its fundamental nature is still tentative and incomplete. More generally, the tools required for a deep understanding of strongly interacting many-body systems remain underdeveloped. Inspired by a research programme held at the Newton Institute in Cambridge, this book contains reviews by leading experts that summarize our current understanding of the nature of turbulence from theoretical, experimental, observational and computational points of view. The articles cover a wide range of topics, including the scaling and organized motion in wall turbulence, small scale structure, dynamics and statistics of homogeneous turbulence, turbulent transport and mixing, and effects of rotation, stratification and magnetohydrodynamics, as well as superfluidity. The book will be useful to researchers and graduate students interested in the fundamental nature of turbulence at high Reynolds numbers.
Vorticity fields that are not overly damped develop extremely complex spatial structures exhibiting a wide range of scales. These structures wax and wane in coherence; some are intense and most of them weak; and they interact nonlinearly. Their evolution is strongly influenced by the presence of boundaries, shear, rotation, stratification and magnetic fields. We label the multitude of phenomena associated with these fields as turbulence and the challenge of predicting the statistical behaviour of such flows has engaged some of the finest minds in twentieth century science.
The progress has been famously slow. This slowness is in part because of the bewildering variety of turbulent flows, from the ideal laboratory creations on a small scale to heterogeneous flows on the dazzling scale of cosmos. Philip Saffman (Structure and Mechanisms of Turbulence II, Lecture Notes in Physics 76, Springer, 1978, p. 273) commented: “… we should not altogether neglect the possibility that there is no such thing as ‘turbulence’. That is to say, it is not meaningful to talk about the properties of a turbulent flow independently of the physical situation in which it arises. In searching for a theory of turbulence, perhaps we are looking for a chimera … Perhaps there is no ‘real turbulence problem’, but a large number of turbulent flows and our problem is the self-imposed and possibly impossible task of fitting many phenomena into the Procrustean bed of a universal turbulence theory.”
Life is but a continuous process of energy conversion and transformation. The accomplishments of civilization have largely been achieved through the increasingly efficient and extensive harnessing of various forms of energy to extend human capabilities and ingenuity. Energy is similarly indispensable for continued human development and economic growth. Providing adequate, affordable energy is a necessary (even if by itself insufficient) prerequisite for eradicating poverty, improving human welfare, and raising living standards worldwide. Without economic growth, it will also be difficult to address social and environmental challenges, especially those associated with poverty. Without continued institutional, social, and technological innovation, it will be impossible to address planetary challenges such as climate change. Energy extraction, conversion, and use always generate undesirable by-products and emissions – at a minimum in the form of dissipated heat. Energy cannot be created or destroyed – it can only be converted from one form to another, along a one-way street from higher to lower grades (qualities) of energy. Although it is common to discuss energy “consumption,” energy is actually transformed rather than consumed.
This Energy Primer 1 aims at a basic-level introduction to fundamental concepts and data that help to understand energy systems holistically and to provide a common conceptual and terminological framework before examining in greater detail the various aspects of energy systems from challenges and options to integrated solutions, as done in the different chapters of the Global Energy Assessment (GEA).
Objectives: This study comprises a review of public involvement strategies across the five stages of research management in the UK's HTA program at the end of a 10-year period. These five stages are: identification of topics; prioritization of these topics as researchable questions; commissioning of research; monitoring of projects throughout their implementation; and publication and dissemination of findings.
Methods: Internal HTA documentation was analyzed alongside narrative analysis of semi-structured interviews of program staff, and a rapid review of published literature.
Results: Public involvement strategies have developed with the growth of the HTA program but were spread unevenly across the five stages of research management. Public involvement was present in identification, strongest in prioritization, present in commissioning but minimal in monitoring and absent in publication and dissemination.
Conclusions: The HTA program has developed public involvement strategies but mainly in prioritization. Further research is required to ascertain where public involvement can be most appropriately used and to evaluate its impact.
To supplement the foregoing chapters, we offer below a table listing some key developments in turbulence research over the period covered by this book, i.e. roughly up to mid-1970s. Later developments involving massive computations, low-dimensional dynamics, the renormalization group, turbulence control, modern instrumentation, and so on, are not included; nor do we include such closely related areas as turbulent thermal convection, combustion, wave turbulence, or the vast field of applications in geophysics, astrophysics and plasma physics. Moreover, the table is ‘internal’ to the subject, in that we make no attempt to relate the events to developments in other scientific fields or to the wider historical context. Despite these limitations, it is our hope that the table, necessarily subjective to some extent, will provide a useful point of reference for the reader. We thank the authors of this book for their comments on the table, especially Professor R. Narasimha for the inspiration he provided.