To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The purpose of this study is to use the baboon as a novel animal model for breath research and to identify and characterize baboon breath metabolites that reflect cardiometabolic function to inform us in the development of a noninvasive, cost-effective, and repeatable point-of-care diagnostic breath test. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Blood and urine was collected from control and IUGR at the approximate age of 3.5 years. Both groups were then placed on a high fat, high sugar, high salt diet for 7 weeks, after which blood, urine, and breath were collected. The breath samples were then subjected to comprehensive, 2-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Using ChromaTOF software, breath VOCs were identified with at least an 80% spectral match against the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) chemical reference library. The raw data were then statistically analyzed using MetaboAnalyst. We then interrogated multiple online databases to characterize and identify the role of VOCs that were present in both control and IUGR groups. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Preliminary analyses of the breath VOCs indicate differences in expression between sexes and in control Versus IUGR groups. These results indicate unique “breath signatures.” Further analysis of the breath VOCs reveals the presence of metabolites that are involved in β-oxidation and oxidative stress pathways. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This breath study, a first of its kind, will develop the baboon as a superior animal model for breath biomarker research. Our observed unique “breath signatures” indicate changes in lipid metabolism and oxidative stress pathways, which we hypothesize are the early metabolic changes at the cellular level that are not yet reflected in clinical lab measures. Future directions include analyzing breath VOCs that did not meet 80% spectral match, validation using SPME technology and commercial standards, and initiating a human pilot study in clinically obese, at-risk children in collaboration with physicians at the Children’s Hospital of San Antonio to develop a noninvasive, cost-effective, rapid, and repeatable point-of-care diagnostic breath test.
Regulatory impact analyses (RIAs) weigh the benefits of regulations against the burdens they impose and are invaluable tools for informing decision makers. We offer 10 tips for nonspecialist policymakers and interested stakeholders who will be reading RIAs as consumers.
1.Core problem: Determine whether the RIA identifies the core problem (compelling public need) the regulation is intended to address.
2.Alternatives: Look for an objective, policy-neutral evaluation of the relative merits of reasonable alternatives.
3.Baseline: Check whether the RIA presents a reasonable “counterfactual” against which benefits and costs are measured.
4.Increments: Evaluate whether totals and averages obscure relevant distinctions and trade-offs.
5.Uncertainty: Recognize that all estimates involve uncertainty, and ask what effect key assumptions, data, and models have on those estimates.
6.Transparency: Look for transparency and objectivity of analytical inputs.
7.Benefits: Examine how projected benefits relate to stated objectives.
8.Costs: Understand what costs are included.
9.Distribution: Consider how benefits and costs are distributed.
10.Symmetrical treatment: Ensure that benefits and costs are presented symmetrically.
It has been postulated that aging is the consequence of an accelerated accumulation of somatic DNA mutations and that subsequent errors in the primary structure of proteins ultimately reach levels sufficient to affect organismal functions. The technical limitations of detecting somatic changes and the lack of insight about the minimum level of erroneous proteins to cause an error catastrophe hampered any firm conclusions on these theories. In this study, we sequenced the whole genome of DNA in whole blood of two pairs of monozygotic (MZ) twins, 40 and 100 years old, by two independent next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms (Illumina and Complete Genomics). Potentially discordant single-base substitutions supported by both platforms were validated extensively by Sanger, Roche 454, and Ion Torrent sequencing. We demonstrate that the genomes of the two twin pairs are germ-line identical between co-twins, and that the genomes of the 100-year-old MZ twins are discerned by eight confirmed somatic single-base substitutions, five of which are within introns. Putative somatic variation between the 40-year-old twins was not confirmed in the validation phase. We conclude from this systematic effort that by using two independent NGS platforms, somatic single nucleotide substitutions can be detected, and that a century of life did not result in a large number of detectable somatic mutations in blood. The low number of somatic variants observed by using two NGS platforms might provide a framework for detecting disease-related somatic variants in phenotypically discordant MZ twins.
This chapter describes various imaging modalities and safety concerns associated with a person when used during pregnancy or in the immediate postpartum period. The radiation effects to the fetus are categorized into deterministic and stochastic effects. Plain radiography and fluoroscopy, ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear medicine scan are the most commonly used imaging modalities during pregnancy. Following intravenous administration, very low level of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast agents is excreted in breast milk and ingested by the infant. The advantages of the nuclear medicine scan are lower radiation dose to the maternal breast and the avoidance of intravenous iodinated contrast. Trauma is a major cause of maternal and fetal mortality, and imaging choices in this setting should be prioritized for fast and accurate diagnosis. CT evaluation is strongly recommended in patients with an acute abdomen who suffered abdominal trauma.
Carbon fibers are finding increasing application in making various composites with special properties. It is found that such composites have properties that can be markedly effected by the carbon fiber surface. The effects of surface modification by electrochemical and plasma oxidation is discussed and the surface chemical changes described. The interaction of the matrix with the fiber surface is a subtle mixture of physical and chemical effects. The paper discusses work in the author's laboratory using surface studies with core and valence band X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and other techniques.
After the discovery of the C60 molecule a lot of attention has been given to its optical and collective properties. The latest development in fullerene related research was the synthesis of coaxial carbon sheets called carbon or nano tubes and also spherical concentric graphitic shells called carbon onions. With a model describing the collective dynamics of electrons we may gain insight in the physics of the collective resonances. Based on a simple equation of motion for the induced density in a carbon particle we demonstrate the existence of a rich spectrum of collective resonances for both carbon onions and carbon tubes.
The crystallography and electronic properties of the Ln2-xSr1+xMn2O7 manganese oxides adopting the n = 2 Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) structure are discussed, focusing on the structural phase diagrams and electronic properties in the vicinity of the Mn +3.5 oxidation state and in particular the ease of synthesis of single phases of these materials.
The present qualitative study explored health perceptions, diet and the social construction of obesity and how this relates to the initiation and maintenance of a healthier diet in UK Pakistani women.
Pakistani women in Greater Manchester participated in focus group and one-to-one discussions. Semi-structured interviews employing fictional vignettes and body shape images were used to explore the participants’ beliefs and practices regarding diet, overweight/obesity and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Transcripts were analysed using phenomenological and sociological approaches.
Interviews took place either in local community and Pakistani resource centres or in private homes.
First- and second-generation women who were both active in the community and housebound. The women spoke English and/or Urdu.
The fifty-five participants lacked the motivation to address weight gain and were unsure how to do so. There was a limited awareness of the link between weight gain and type 2 diabetes. Other barriers included the influence of Islam, culture and familial expectations on home cooking, perceptions that weight gain is inevitable (owing to ageing, childbirth or divine predestination) and the prioritisation of family concerns over individual lifestyle changes. As the findings of the present research did not correspond to existing educational and behaviour change models, a new Health Action Transition conceptual model is proposed.
Health education programmes that aim to address obesity and its associated risks in the South Asian community must take into account the complex beliefs and practices and the multiple dimensions of religion, ethnic and social identity within this population. The present study provides further insight into these factors and proposes a novel model for use in designing and implementing education interventions for British Pakistani women.
Chinese and Korean protests over “revisionist” Japanese histories of World War II are well known. The impact of contested Chinese and US histories of the Korean War on US-China relations today has received less attention. More broadly, there has been little research seeking to systematically explore just how history textbook controversies matter for international relations. This article experimentally manipulates the impact of nation (US/China), of source (in-group/out-group textbooks), and of valence (positive/negative historical narratives) on measures of beliefs about the past, emotions, collective self-esteem, and threat perception in present-day US-China relations. A 2 × 2 × 2 design exposed randomized groups of Chinese and US university students to fictional high school history textbook accounts of the Korean War. Findings reveal significant effects of nation, source, and valence and suggest that the “historical relevance” of a shared past to national identities in the present has a dramatic impact on how historical controversies affect threat perception.
Family systems theory proposes that an individual's functioning depends on interactive processes within the self and within the context of dyadic family subsystems. Previous research on these processes has focused largely on behavioral, cognitive, and psychophysiological properties of the individual and the dyad. The goals of this study were to explore genetic and environmental interactions within the family system by examining how the dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) A1+ polymorphism in mothers and children relates to maternal sensitivity, how maternal and child characteristics might mediate those effects, and whether maternal sensitivity moderates the association between DRD2 A1+ and child affective problems. Evidence is found for an evocative effect of child polymorphism on parenting behavior, and for a moderating effect of child polymorphism on the association between maternal sensitivity and later child affective problems. Findings are discussed from a family systems perspective, highlighting the role of the family as a context for gene expression in both mothers and children.
The values taken by $\Gamma_0(n)$-modular functions at elliptic points of order 2 for the Fricke group $\Gamma_0(n)^\dagger$ that lie outside $\Gamma_0(n)$ are studied. In the case of a principal modulus (‘Hauptmodul’) for $\Gamma_0(n)$ or $\Gamma_0(n)^\dagger$, the class fields generated by these values are determined.
Fat in human milk is extremely variable and can represent up to 50 % of infant energy intake. To accurately determine milk composition and infant intake at 1 (n 17), 2 (n 17), 4 (n 17), 6 (n 15), 9 (n 6) and 12 (n 5) months of lactation, samples of fore- and hind-milk were collected from each breast at each feed over 24 h periods from an initial group of seventeen women. The content of fat in milk varied over 24 h, with a mean CV of 47·6 (SE 2·1) % (N 76) AND 46·7 (se 1·7) % (n 76) for left and right breasts respectively. The 24 h amounts of fat, lactose and protein in milk differed between women (P=0·0001), but were consistent between left and right breasts. Daily milk production differed between breasts (P=0·0001) and women (P=0·0001). Accordingly, amounts of fat (P=0·0008), lactose (P=0·0385) and protein (P=0·0173) delivered to the infant over 24 h also differed between breasts and women (P=0·0001). The energy content of milk and the amount of energy delivered to the infant over 24 h were the same between breasts, but differed between women (P=0·0001). The growth rate of a group of only six infants in the present study was not related to either the concentrations or amounts of fat, lactose, protein and energy in milk over the first 6 months of life. These results show the individuality of milk composition and suggest that only a rigorous sampling routine that takes into account all levels of variation will allow the accurate determination of infant intake of fat, lactose, protein and energy.
Quantitative measurements were made of relative breast volume and milk production from 1 month of lactation until 3 months after weaning, and the storage capacity of the breasts was calculated. The increase in breast tissue volume from before conception until 1 month of lactation was maintained for the first 6 months of lactation (means ± S.E.M.) (190.3 ± 13.1 ml, number of breasts, nb = 46). During this period of exclusive breast-feeding, 24 h milk production from each breast remained relatively constant (453.6 ± 20.1 g, nb = 48), and storage capacity was 209.9 ± 11.0 ml (nb = 46). After 6 months, breast volume, milk production and storage capacity all decreased. There was a relationship between 24 h milk production and the storage capacity of the breasts, and these both appeared to be responding to infant demand for milk. At 15 months of lactation, the 24 h milk production of each breast was substantial (208.0 ± 56.7 g, nb = 6), even though the breasts had returned to preconception size. This was associated with an apparent increased efficiency of the breast (milk production per unit breast tissue) after 6 months, which may have been due to redistribution of tissues within the breast. The possible causes of the decrease in breast volume are discussed.
To describe the outcome of rough sleepers admitted to an acute psychiatric ward; the professional most involved with the person was interviewed.
Eleven out of 12 people admitted with a psychosis were accommodated and in touch with mental health services at follow-up (median of 21 months) compared with two out of 10 people, admitted without a psychosis, accommodated and four out of 10 people in touch with mental health services.
Psychiatric admission with good aftercare is worthwhile for rough sleepers with a psychosis, even if it requires involuntary admission.