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Dormant states of organisms are easier to store than the living state because they tolerate larger variations in temperature, light, storage space etc., making them attractive for laboratory culture stocks and also for experiments under special circumstances, especially space flight experiments. Like several other organisms, Euglena gracilis is capable of forming desiccation tolerant resting states in order to survive periods of unfavourable environmental conditions. In earlier experiments it was found that dormant Euglena cells must not become completely desiccated. Some residual moisture is required to ensure recovery of the resting states. To analyse the water demand in recovery of Euglena resting states, cells were transferred to a defined amount of cotton wool (0.5 g). Subsequently different volumes of medium (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10 and 20 ml) were added in order to supply humidity; a control was set up without additional liquid. Samples were sealed in transparent 50 ml falcon tubes and stored for 9 months under three different conditions:
•Constant low light conditions in a culture chamber at 20°C,
•In a black box, illuminated with short light emitting diode-light pulses provided by joule thieves and
•In darkness in a black box.
After 9 months, cells were transferred to fresh medium and cell number, photosynthetic efficiency and movement behavior was monitored over 3 weeks. It was found that cells recovered under all conditions except in the control, where no medium was supplied. Transcription levels of 21 genes were analysed with a Multiplex-polymerase chain reaction. One hour after rehydration five of these genes were found to be up-regulated: ubiquitin, heat shock proteins HSP70, HSP90, the calcium-sensor protein frequenin and a distinct protein kinase, which is involved in gravitaxis. The results indicate a transient general stress response of the cells.
To determine the prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) colonizing in pediatric refugees admitted to a University Children Hospital in Germany.
Retrospective observational study.
General pediatric and pediatric surgery units.
In Germany, recommendations for MDRO screening of pediatric refugees were recently published. According to these and institutional recommendations, all hospitalized pediatric refugees were screened for MDROs between October 2015 and March 2016.
Using electronic surveillance data, we performed a chart review to identify the prevalence of MDROs among and the clinical diagnoses of pediatric refugees.
Among 325 patients hospitalized for various causes, most frequently gastroenteritis (30.9%), MDROs were detected in 33.8%. Most of these patients were colonized with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative (MRGN) bacteria (113 isolates), mostly 2MRGN/ESBL (87 isolates); some patients were colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, 22 isolates); and 1 patient was colonized with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Among 110 refugee patients, we detected single colonization with an MDRO in 84 patients (76.4%), co-colonization with 2 pathogens in 23 patients (20.9%), and triple colonization in 3 patients (2.7%). However, infections with MDROs occurred in only 3.6% of pediatric refugees. The peak of positive MDRO screening results in 2015 correlated with an increased hospitalization rate.
Implementation of infection control measures among pediatric refugees is challenging. Due to the high frequency of MDROs in these patients, current screening, isolation, and treatment strategies may have to be adapted.
Two Vertisol soil profiles under xeric soil moisture regimes, located at Qedma and Akko, Israel, were investigated and compared to a profile under ustic moisture regime, located in Hyderabad, India. Samples were taken in complete successive 2 cm thin layers down to about 180 cm depth or more. Organic and inorganic carbon were analyzed with regard to 13C and 14C concentrations. While all soils have radiocarbon ages of several thousand years BP, the depth distributions reveal substantial differences between the soil carbon dynamics. 14C and, less pronounced, δ13C clearly reflect the pedoturbation process. Further, its strength is found to be related to mainly soil moisture regime, then clay content and land use. In one soil, a change of growing from C4 to C3 crops in the past can be concluded from the δ13C depth distribution.
Principles contributing to changes and the final balance of rejuvenation in 14C dates of soil profiles are identified. The annual addition to the atmosphere of ca 5.5·1012kg of dead carbon from fossil carbon sources and 1.5·1012kg of older carbon from forest clearing make soil appear older. Bomb carbon and annual recycling of most of the 115·1012kg of terrestrial organic carbon, equivalent to the annual photosynthetic turnover of carbon, rejuvenates soil dates. This also applies to root growth, animal transport, and in acid or alkaline soils, to humus percolation. All available 14C dates of soil profiles were evaluated for the impact of bomb carbon. We also studied the effects of morphogenetic soil-forming processes, such as turbations, on soil rejuvenation. Bioturbation, as a general principle of soil dynamics, requires more differential treatment due to modern and bomb carbon that constitutes body carbon of earthworms as well as steadily increasing 14C age with depth in all Mollisols.
The natural 14C and 13C content of soil organic matter and their dependence on depth for two Alfisols are presented. This soil type which covers a large area of the earth's surface is characterized by clay migration processes (“Lessivé”). The samples were taken as successive horizontal layers of 2cm depth from an area of ca lm2 size as deep as the C content allows 14C analysis. The minima of the D14C distribution decrease with depth, while the maxima increase in the upper, leached horizon (A1) due to bomb 14C and decrease in the lower, clay illuviated (Bt). δ13C indicates proceeding decomposition in A1 and protection of carbon, probably due to the formation of clay humus complexes in Bt. δ13C values were also used for age correction of the 14C data due to isotopic fractionation. The D14C and δ13C depth distributions are characterized by sharp peaks at the boundaries of the horizons, probably caused by the influence of textural changes on the transport of C with percolating water.
This list consists of dates of soil samples from selected soil profiles in Tunisia, Sudan, and Argentina. The profiles from Tunisia were taken to elucidate ages of typic paleosols of paleoclimatic significance. The Sudan profiles increase our understanding of pedogenesis of Sudanese Vertisols. The existence of pedoturbation in these profiles is further explored and questioned. The profiles of Argentina were dated to supplement information from chemical and micromorphological studies.
We determined δ13C and D14C in some agricultural soil profiles of the tropics: Ustalf from the semi-arid tropics (India), a Udult, an Aquoll and an Aquept from the humid tropics (Philippines). We used a thin-layer sampling, resulting in high-resolution depth-distribution patterns of natural 13C and 14C content of organic carbon. Regular plowing or puddling leads to uniform isotope concentrations in the topsoil. Decomposition of organic matter raises the δ13C value, and vertical translocation raises the δ13C value with depth. The change of cultivation from pulses (C3-type metabolism of photosynthesis) to sorghum (C4) results in a decrease of δ13C with depth in the topsoil. Where the clay content in the subsoil is high, δ13C remains constant, due to fixation of organic carbon to clay minerals, and D14C decreases with depth. Below the clay-enriched zone, δ13C declines and D14C rises again, due to a chromatographic-like effect. At some horizon boundaries, inhomogeneities in texture delay percolation locally, thus preventing sorption and causing peak values of D14C.
Some examples are given to show that the depth distribution curves of natural 14C and 13C of thin-layer sampled soil profiles can be used for inferring changes in soil organic matter and climate changes. By using a simple exchange model, we can determine whether decomposition products are fixed by clay or transported downward toward the groundwater table. We can also estimate the amount of the Greenhouse gases, CO2 and CH4, produced by the decomposition of the organic matter in terrestrial and paddy soils and emitted from the soil. A change from C3 to C4 plants, which might occur during a predicted temperature rise in some areas, thereby influencing the carbon balance, can be clearly detected by the δ13C depth profiles. A change in organic matter input can also be calculated under certain circumstances.
Twenty years after the first International Radiocarbon Database Workshop, and 13 yr after the setup of a preliminary structure for a worldwide database on 14C dates of soils, sound reasons and excuses for not establishing a real and globally accessible database have diminished. Climate change itself is widely accepted as reality now, and the strong demand of the modeling community for reliable data of the carbon pool—especially in soils—has been maintained. With the steadily increasing capacity of 14C dating facilities, these data can be and are produced. Nevertheless, they still cannot be accessed easily and equally enough. Now, decreased costs of hardware and recent developments of the internet enable the IRSDB to be implemented, in a joint effort. As a seed, a test server has been set up, with open-source software, housing the database in alpha-stage, a web interface, and a community portal. Thus, the development of the design as well as the data input of the database is done in close collaboration of the users of the database, the laboratories, soil scientists, archaeologists, modelers, other scientists, and interested laypersons. In order to guarantee the longtime independence of the availability and usability of the database from vendors or changing standards, only widely used open-source software and open standards are used. Therefore, the development of plug-ins for data input from laboratory databases or output to different required formats as well as interfaces to GIS and other software is possible. A version control system takes care of the integrity of the data.
Up to now, Global Carbon Cycle Models (GCCM) have only represented the soil and biosphere in a very simplified way. For example, the High Resolution Biosphere Model (HRBM) (Esser 1987; Esser and Lautenschlager 1994) distinguishes five subreservoirs and determines the fluxes between them for selected area of a global grid. The models have not yet been sufficiently tested against global observations. Such testing is difficult because the observed variables are in turn dependent on the behavior of other geological carbon pools, e.g., the atmosphere and ocean.
Radiocarbon laboratories using liquid scintillation counting depend on the availability of a catalyst for benzene synthesis. One of the two commonly used is a commercially available chromium-activated silica-alumina catalyst, PKN/D1. As this catalyst will no longer be produced, we have tested similar catalysts as possible replacements. We measured benzene purity by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and found that chromium endowment was crucial for a proper catalyst function. The surface area of the catalyst also significantly affected benzene yield and purity. We also studied the effects of different reaction conditions of acetylene absorption and benzene desorption on benzene purity. A catalyst with half of the Cr endowment and doubled specific surface area created yield and purity comparable to PKN/D1.
Soil organic matter sequesters close to three times the carbon existing totally in the living biomass and nearly the same for the total carbon in the atmosphere. Models, such as Jenkinson's or Parton's Century model, help to define soil organic matter fractions of different functions, based on residence time/14C age. Rejuvenation of soil carbon was felt to be the principal impediment to absolute soil dating, in addition to the ambiguity of the initiation point of soil formation and soil age. Recent studies, for example, of Becker-Heidmann (1989), indicate that a soil 14C age of >1000 yr cannot have >0.1% rejuvenation in the total soil organic matter compartments/fractions to be possible and sustainable. Always problematic in earlier observations were age vs. depth increases, in 14C profile curves showing an inflection of reduced age in the deepest samples, i.e., from the rim of the organic matter containing epipedon. We attribute this phenomenon, in mollic horizons, to earthworm casts in the terminal part of the escape tube. Becker-Heidmann (1989) has shown, in thin layer soil profile dating, a highly significant correlation between the highest 14C ages and the highest clay content. Thus, optimization of soil dating is, to a lesser degree, related to the applied extracting solvent system than to soil texture fractions. Such observations allow us to mitigate error ranges inherent in dating dynamic soil systems.
At 2 locations of the southern Spanish coast, we found indications for tsunamis induced by submarine earthquakes. Charcoal, which we sampled in 2 stratified, assumed tsunamigenic sediment (tsunamites) layers at the shore outside the ruins of the Roman city of Baelo Claudia, close to the Strait of Gibraltar (province of Cádiz), and radiocarbon dated, surprisingly turned out to be of identical age, about 465 BP. In the laguna of the Cabo de Gata (province of Almería), we found possible remnants of tsunamites in drilling cores deposited above organic sediments, 14C dated as 680 ± 30 BP.
Infectious diseases impair Se metabolism, and low Se status is associated with mortality risk in adults with critical disease. The Se status of neonates is poorly characterised, and a potential impact of connatal infection is unknown. We hypothesised that an infection negatively affects the Se status of neonates. We conducted an observational case–control study at three intensive care units at the Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany. Plasma samples were collected from forty-four neonates. On the basis of clinical signs for bacterial infection and concentrations of IL-6 or C-reactive protein, neonates were classified into control (n 23) and infected (n 21) groups. Plasma Se and selenoprotein P (SePP) concentrations were determined by X-ray fluorescence and ELISA, respectively, at day of birth (day 1) and 48 h later (day 3). Se and SePP showed a positive correlation in both groups of neonates. Se concentrations indicative of Se deficit in adults (<20 µg/l) were observed in four infected neonates and one control subject, and three infected neonates had very low SePP concentrations (<0·5 mg/l). The univariate analysis revealed a significant difference in Se and SePP concentrations between the groups. Both parameters correlated inversely to IL-6 in neonates with severe inflammation (IL-6>500 ng/l). During antibiotic therapy, SePP increased significantly from day 1 (1·03 (sd 0·10) mg/l) to day 3 (1·34 (sd 0·10) mg/l), indicative of improved hepatic Se metabolism. We conclude that both Se and SePP are suitable biomarkers for assessing Se status in neonates and for identifying subjects at risk of deficiency.
Küstner (1921) catalogued K648 in his photographic survey of M15, but it was not recognized as a PN central star until Pease (1928) discovered the nebula, denoted Ps1. As one of very few PN known in globular clusters — it was the only known until Gillet et al. (1989) reported the discovery of a second in M22 and Jacoby et al. (this meeting) announced two new but very faint objects — K648 offers one of the better opportunities to study the post-AGB evolution of extreme Pop. II stars. Previous investigations of the nebula and star (Adams et al. 1984; Peña, Torres-Peimbert, & Ruiz 1992; Heber, Dreizler, & Werner 1993) all concluded that the stellar temperature is slightly less than 40000 K. Heber et al. also concluded the photospheric He and C abundances were 3 × and 5 × higher than solar.