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Understanding differences in social-emotional behavior can help identify atypical development. This study examined the differences in social-emotional development in children at increased risk of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis (infant siblings of children diagnosed with the disorder). Parents completed the Brief Infant-Toddler Social-Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) to determine its ability to flag children with later-diagnosed ASD in a high-risk (HR) sibling population. Parents of HR (n = 311) and low-risk (LR; no family history of ASD; n = 127) children completed the BITSEA when their children were 18 months old and all children underwent a diagnostic assessment for ASD at age 3 years. All six subscales of the BITSEA (Problems, Competence, ASD Problems, ASD Competence, Total ASD Score, and Red Flags) distinguished between those in the HR group who were diagnosed with ASD (n = 84) compared to non-ASD-diagnosed children (both HR-N and LR). One subscale (BITSEA Competence) differentiated between the HR children not diagnosed with ASD and the LR group. The results suggest that tracking early social-emotional development may have implications for all HR children, as they are at increased risk of ASD but also other developmental or mental health conditions.
Life course research embraces the complexity of health and disease development, tackling the extensive interactions between genetics and environment. This interdisciplinary blueprint, or theoretical framework, offers a structure for research ideas and specifies relationships between related factors. Traditionally, methodological approaches attempt to reduce the complexity of these dynamic interactions and decompose health into component parts, ignoring the complex reciprocal interaction of factors that shape health over time. New methods that match the epistemological foundation of the life course framework are needed to fully explore adaptive, multilevel, and reciprocal interactions between individuals and their environment. The focus of this article is to (1) delineate the differences between lifespan and life course research, (2) articulate the importance of complex systems science as a methodological framework in the life course research toolbox to guide our research questions, (3) raise key questions that can be asked within the clinical and translational science domain utilizing this framework, and (4) provide recommendations for life course research implementation, charting the way forward. Recent advances in computational analytics, computer science, and data collection could be used to approximate, measure, and analyze the intertwining and dynamic nature of genetic and environmental factors involved in health development.
Despite aspirations to be a world-class national curriculum, the Australian Curriculum (AC) has been criticised as ‘manifestly deficient’ (Australian Government Department of Education and Training, 2014 p. 5) as an inclusive curriculum, failing to meet the needs of all students with disabilities (SWD) and their teachers. There is a need for research into the daily attempts of educators to navigate the tension between a ‘top-down’ system-wide curriculum and a ‘bottom-up’ regard for individual student needs, with a view to informing both policy and practice. This article is the first of two research papers in which we report the findings from a national online Research in Special Education (RISE) Australian Curriculum Survey of special educators in special schools, classes, and units regarding their experience using the AC to plan for and teach SWD. Survey results indicated (a) inconsistent use of the AC as the primary basis for developing learning objectives and designing learning experiences, (b) infrequent use of the achievement standards to support assessment and reporting, and (c) considerable supplementation of the AC from other resources when educating SWD. Overall, participants expressed a lack of confidence in translating the AC framework into a meaningful curriculum for SWD. Implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed.
Ceramic fiber–matrix composites (CFMCs) are exciting materials for engineering applications in extreme environments. By integrating ceramic fibers within a ceramic matrix, CFMCs allow an intrinsically brittle material to exhibit sufficient structural toughness for use in gas turbines and nuclear reactors. Chemical stability under high temperature and irradiation coupled with high specific strength make these materials unique and increasingly popular in extreme settings. This paper first offers a review of the importance and growing body of research on fiber–matrix interfaces as they relate to composite toughening mechanisms. Second, micropillar compression is explored experimentally as a high-fidelity method for extracting interface properties compared with traditional fiber push-out testing. Three significant interface properties that govern composite toughening were extracted. For a 50-nm-pyrolytic carbon interface, the following were observed: a fracture energy release rate of ∼2.5 J/m2, an internal friction coefficient of 0.25 ± 0.04, and a debond shear strength of 266 ± 24 MPa. This research supports micromechanical evaluations as a unique bridge between theoretical physics models for microcrack propagation and empirically driven finite element models for bulk CFMCs.
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for major depression is an effective treatment, but outcomes for complex cases, with co-occurring biological, psychological and social factors, are variable. Complexity factors can cause treatment to become diffuse, disorganized and over-complicated. At Step 3, disorder-specific protocols should be provided with therapy kept as simple as possible and delivered responsively, e.g. barriers to treatment should be tackled, ensure the client is well-prepared and seek to form a strong therapeutic alliance. At Step 4, if disorder-specific protocols have been ineffective, the priority is to formulate how complexity factors are interacting with the client's depression. An individualized formulation is used to carefully target these interactions. The treatment is still evidence-based and simple at the point of delivery, but there is greater emphasis on case-level interactions that are unique to each individual. Case examples are used to illustrate both approaches.
Evaluating and enhancing supervisee competence is a key function of supervision and can be aided by the use of direct assessments of clinical competence, e.g. the Cognitive Therapy Scale – Revised (CTS-R). We aimed to review the literature regarding inter-rater reliability and training on the CTS and CTS-R to present exploratory data on training raters to use this measure. We employed a systematic review. An exploratory study evaluated the outcomes of a CTS-R supervisor training workshop (n = 34), including self-reported familiarity with and confidence in using the tool, and inter-rater consistency on three CTS-R subscales, pre- and post-training. CTS and CTS-R inter-rater reliability was variable, with evidence of rater training enhancing reliability, although the form, duration and frequency of such training is unclear. The exploratory study found that supervisors rated themselves as more familiar with and confident in using the CTS-R at the end of training compared to at the beginning. However, inter-rater reliability was poor at the beginning and end of the training. Rating competence requires supervisors to make qualitative judgements, which is inherently variable. Training raters has been shown to improve rater reliability, although this was not demonstrated in the exploratory study. Practice implications and future research priorities are identified.
Although both the urban and rural landscapes of Roman Italy have received due attention in current debates on the Roman economy, this is less true for the highly variable group of intermediate sites, here conveniently labelled as ‘minor centres’, and their role within economic networks. This contribution focuses attention on two such sites, Forum Appii and Ad Medias, situated in the Pontine plain (Lazio, central Italy) along the Via Appia. After addressing issues of definition and the current state of research, we shall approach the potential functions of such sites through geographic models. Next, we discuss the results of a programme of geophysical surveys and field walking on both case-study sites. The results obtained suggest that, although far from being a uniform settlement class, minor centres could perform crucial functions within local and regional economies. Based on the present data, Forum Appii developed into a centre of craft production and, with its river port, also became a trade hub of regional importance. Ad Medias functioned primarily as a small centre provisioning and servicing travellers and the local rural population. To conclude the article, we consider the implications of the results obtained in terms of future research strategies.
A system combining photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal approaches is designed to convert solar energy to electricity with high efficiency across the full solar spectrum. Concentrated solar spectrum is split into two parts: PV and thermal. The PV part of the spectrum is further split into several subbands directed to bandgap appropriate solar cells on an inexpensive Si substrate. Epitaxial Ge on Si is used as a virtual substrate for III-V semiconductor growth. At long and very short wavelengths where PV efficiency is low, solar radiation is directed to a high temperature thermal storage tank for electricity generation using heat engines. The potential of using PV waste heat due to thermalization of high energy photoelectrons for electricity generation is also investigated. Detailed optical and thermal analysis show that with optimized design and neglecting optical component loss, system power conversion efficiency can reach 56%, including more than 16% absolute contribution from thermal storage.
We studied photoluminescent properties and luminescent decay dynamics in Si quantum dots (QDs) produced by Si implantation in SiO2, and their modification by the application of an implantation mask. Silicon quantum dots were prepared by ion implantation, followed by high temperature annealing leading to nanocrystal nucleation and growth. The mask was prepared by spin-coating silica microspheres to achieve laterally-selective implantation, to control QD size and separation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images were obtained to verify the diameter of the quantum dots. We observe a noticeable peak shift and narrowing in the photoluminescence spectra with the application of the implantation mask. Observed maxima in the photoluminescence spectra are compared with a quantum field theoretical model using an infinite confining 1D potential for Si quantum dots. We comment on the role of excitation transfer by observing a change in the dispersion exponent of the luminescent decay dynamics due to the mask.
This paper describes a cognitive model for first/second onset depression that has been precipitated by major life stress, entrenched for several months and is unresponsive to pharmacotherapy. These conditions create high risks for recurrent/chronic depression and early intervention is proposed to identify, treat and protect against relapse/recurrence. Severe life stress interacts with an individual's core self-representations and personal values, identity is disrupted and depression is maintained by dysfunctional goal engagement and disengagement. Treatment aims to restore functional self-regulation by increasing self-diversification and creating balanced goal investments. Outcome and follow-up data are reported in a case series of five consecutive patients. There was good therapist adherence to the prescribed targets and pre-post effect sizes were comparable or larger than published outcome studies. At the 12 month follow-up, three of the four treatment completers (75%) had made reliable and clinically significant changes and were in full remission. This provides encouraging preliminary evidence for the model's validity and the therapy's efficacy.
In the single-step SOFC co-firing process YSZ electrolytes with sintering aid densify at a temperature of ˜1300°C. Electrodes employed in the single-step co-fired SOFC must therefore sinter with the right microstructure at ˜1300°C. Calcium-doped lanthanum ferrite, La0.8Ca0.2FeO3±δ (LCF-20) was identified in earlier studies as a possible stable cathode material for the single-step co-fired SOFC. LCF-20 is also expected to be a more stable cathode material than LSCF (strontium and cobalt doped lanthanum ferrite).
Four-probe conductivity tests yielded ˜93 S/cm at 800°C and showed an increase in conductivity as pO2 increases, characteristic of p-type conduction. LCF has a higher electrical conductivity compared to LSCF and LCM+YSZ cathode materials. Oxygen ion conductivity of LCF-20 obtained from permeability measurements is higher than that of YSZ and LSF-20. Therefore LCF has excellent mixed conducting properties to serve as a catalytically active cathode material for co-fired solid oxide fuel cells operating at intermediate temperatures.
Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were made on symmetrical cells fabricated with YSZ electrolyte and the electrode materials. A gadolium doped ceria (GDC) barrier layer was employed to prevent LCF/YSZ reaction. Comparison of LCF/GDC/YSZ/GDC/LCF EIS data to LCM+YSZ/YSZ/LCM+YSZ EIS data gathered using identical test conditions and electrode microstructures shows that LCF has a measured polarization resistance (Rp) of approximately half that seen in LCM+YSZ. Variations in cathode thickness and porosity show the best performance with a cathode of a critical thickness and finer porosity.
Slight stoichiometric deviations in LCF result in the formation of a Ca-Fe-O liquid phase during electrode sintering at around 1220 C. The liquid phase migrates into and through the GDC layer. EDX line scans show the second phase to be rich in Ca and Fe. Thicker GDC layers seem to prevent the liquid phase from reaching the electrolyte/GDC interface. Structural analysis with TEM will be performed.
The properties and the effect of the Ca-Fe-O phase on the cathodic performance of the cell are being investigated; however, preliminary results indicate that minor amounts of the Ca-Fe-O phase will not interfere with the electrochemical performance of the LCF cathode. The high temperature instability in LCF has been observed in other studies, but has not been studied specifically in the literature.
In recent years that has been an increasing interest in supervision within the UK's cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) community. This is because the role of supervision has begun to be recognized in relation to the delivery of effective clinical services (Department of Health, 1998), and because of a clear recognition of the need to ensure that CBT practitioners are competent. Perhaps less well recognized in CBT are a number of interesting educational approaches to supervision, ones that may make supervision more successful. This paper summarizes some of these theories from a CBT perspective. Whilst the evidence base does not yet justify being too prescriptive, it is argued that some of these theories, such as Vygotsky's notion of the “Zone of Proximal Development”, provide helpful prompts for reflecting on CBT supervision. An integrative model is constructed from these theories, with illustrative examples and suggestions for future research.