To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Despite aspirations to be a world-class national curriculum, the Australian Curriculum (AC) has been criticised as ‘manifestly deficient’ (Australian Government Department of Education and Training, 2014 p. 5) as an inclusive curriculum, failing to meet the needs of all students with disabilities (SWD) and their teachers. There is a need for research into the daily attempts of educators to navigate the tension between a ‘top-down’ system-wide curriculum and a ‘bottom-up’ regard for individual student needs, with a view to informing both policy and practice. This article is the first of two research papers in which we report the findings from a national online Research in Special Education (RISE) Australian Curriculum Survey of special educators in special schools, classes, and units regarding their experience using the AC to plan for and teach SWD. Survey results indicated (a) inconsistent use of the AC as the primary basis for developing learning objectives and designing learning experiences, (b) infrequent use of the achievement standards to support assessment and reporting, and (c) considerable supplementation of the AC from other resources when educating SWD. Overall, participants expressed a lack of confidence in translating the AC framework into a meaningful curriculum for SWD. Implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed.
Ceramic fiber–matrix composites (CFMCs) are exciting materials for engineering applications in extreme environments. By integrating ceramic fibers within a ceramic matrix, CFMCs allow an intrinsically brittle material to exhibit sufficient structural toughness for use in gas turbines and nuclear reactors. Chemical stability under high temperature and irradiation coupled with high specific strength make these materials unique and increasingly popular in extreme settings. This paper first offers a review of the importance and growing body of research on fiber–matrix interfaces as they relate to composite toughening mechanisms. Second, micropillar compression is explored experimentally as a high-fidelity method for extracting interface properties compared with traditional fiber push-out testing. Three significant interface properties that govern composite toughening were extracted. For a 50-nm-pyrolytic carbon interface, the following were observed: a fracture energy release rate of ∼2.5 J/m2, an internal friction coefficient of 0.25 ± 0.04, and a debond shear strength of 266 ± 24 MPa. This research supports micromechanical evaluations as a unique bridge between theoretical physics models for microcrack propagation and empirically driven finite element models for bulk CFMCs.
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for major depression is an effective treatment, but outcomes for complex cases, with co-occurring biological, psychological and social factors, are variable. Complexity factors can cause treatment to become diffuse, disorganized and over-complicated. At Step 3, disorder-specific protocols should be provided with therapy kept as simple as possible and delivered responsively, e.g. barriers to treatment should be tackled, ensure the client is well-prepared and seek to form a strong therapeutic alliance. At Step 4, if disorder-specific protocols have been ineffective, the priority is to formulate how complexity factors are interacting with the client's depression. An individualized formulation is used to carefully target these interactions. The treatment is still evidence-based and simple at the point of delivery, but there is greater emphasis on case-level interactions that are unique to each individual. Case examples are used to illustrate both approaches.
Evaluating and enhancing supervisee competence is a key function of supervision and can be aided by the use of direct assessments of clinical competence, e.g. the Cognitive Therapy Scale – Revised (CTS-R). We aimed to review the literature regarding inter-rater reliability and training on the CTS and CTS-R to present exploratory data on training raters to use this measure. We employed a systematic review. An exploratory study evaluated the outcomes of a CTS-R supervisor training workshop (n = 34), including self-reported familiarity with and confidence in using the tool, and inter-rater consistency on three CTS-R subscales, pre- and post-training. CTS and CTS-R inter-rater reliability was variable, with evidence of rater training enhancing reliability, although the form, duration and frequency of such training is unclear. The exploratory study found that supervisors rated themselves as more familiar with and confident in using the CTS-R at the end of training compared to at the beginning. However, inter-rater reliability was poor at the beginning and end of the training. Rating competence requires supervisors to make qualitative judgements, which is inherently variable. Training raters has been shown to improve rater reliability, although this was not demonstrated in the exploratory study. Practice implications and future research priorities are identified.
Although both the urban and rural landscapes of Roman Italy have received due attention in current debates on the Roman economy, this is less true for the highly variable group of intermediate sites, here conveniently labelled as ‘minor centres’, and their role within economic networks. This contribution focuses attention on two such sites, Forum Appii and Ad Medias, situated in the Pontine plain (Lazio, central Italy) along the Via Appia. After addressing issues of definition and the current state of research, we shall approach the potential functions of such sites through geographic models. Next, we discuss the results of a programme of geophysical surveys and field walking on both case-study sites. The results obtained suggest that, although far from being a uniform settlement class, minor centres could perform crucial functions within local and regional economies. Based on the present data, Forum Appii developed into a centre of craft production and, with its river port, also became a trade hub of regional importance. Ad Medias functioned primarily as a small centre provisioning and servicing travellers and the local rural population. To conclude the article, we consider the implications of the results obtained in terms of future research strategies.
A system combining photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal approaches is designed to convert solar energy to electricity with high efficiency across the full solar spectrum. Concentrated solar spectrum is split into two parts: PV and thermal. The PV part of the spectrum is further split into several subbands directed to bandgap appropriate solar cells on an inexpensive Si substrate. Epitaxial Ge on Si is used as a virtual substrate for III-V semiconductor growth. At long and very short wavelengths where PV efficiency is low, solar radiation is directed to a high temperature thermal storage tank for electricity generation using heat engines. The potential of using PV waste heat due to thermalization of high energy photoelectrons for electricity generation is also investigated. Detailed optical and thermal analysis show that with optimized design and neglecting optical component loss, system power conversion efficiency can reach 56%, including more than 16% absolute contribution from thermal storage.
A single step co-firing process for fabricating solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) requires refractory electrodes to prevent excessive sintering of the electrode while facilitating full-density sintering of the electrolyte. Single cell current-potential curves and impedance measurements indicate that the majority of the performance losses occur in the cathode and are due to activation polarization. A-site deficient calcium and cerium doped lanthanum ferrite cathode powders were synthesized and investigated as possible refractory cathode materials with low activation polarization losses. Four-probe conductivity measurements indicated that all compositions were suitable as cathodes. However, reactivity with YSZ reduced the conductivity by as much as two orders of magnitude, too low for use as a cathode. These refractory cathode compositions could be effective if a suitable barrier layer is applied to prevent reaction with YSZ. Experiments will investigate the applicability of a doped-ceria barrier layer to prevent reaction between the lanthanum ferrite cathode layer and the YSZ electrolyte layer.
The sintering behavior and structural changes of fluorite Gd0.2Ce0.8O2-δ(GDC) with one of three perovskites: LaMnO3 (LMO), (La0.7Sr0.3)0.98MnO3 (LSM) and La0.6Sr0.4Fe0.8Co0.2O3 (LSFC) composite ceramics were studied. Sintering was carried out for two hours at five different temperatures: 1100°C, 1200°C, 1300°C, 1400°C, and 1500°C. The highest sinterability has been found in LSFC + GDC. LSM + GDC appear to undergo two-step sintering mechanisms. Of all types of ceramics, only sintered LMO experiences a phase change, from rhombohedral R C to orthorhombic Pnma structure, with respect to its powder phase at sintering temperatures ≥1200 °C. The transition is notably suppressed when LMO is part of an LMO + GDC composite. GDC in a fluorite and/perovskite composite, when sintered, undergoes a temperature-dependent expansion in its unit cell that is not observed in pure GDC ceramics. This structural change will impact the function of composite ceramics as a fuel cell cathode, or oxygen separation membranes.
An electrochemical cell employing a YSZ electrolyte and two Au electrodes was utilized as a model system for investigating the mechanisms responsible for impedancemetric NOx (NO and NO2) sensing. The cell consists of two dense Au electrodes on top of a porous/dense YSZ bilayer structure (with the additional porous layer present only under the Au electrodes). Both electrodes were co-located on the same side of the cell, resulting in an in-plane geometry for the current path. The porous YSZ appears to extend the triple phase boundary and allows for enhanced NOx sensing performance, although the exact role of the porous layer is not completely understood. Impedance data were obtained over the frequency range of 0.1 Hz to 1 MHz, and over a range of oxygen (2 to 18.9%) and NOx (10 to 100 ppm) concentrations, and temperatures (600 to 700 °C). Data were fit with an equivalent circuit, and the values of the circuit elements were obtained for different concentrations and temperatures. Changes in a single low-frequency arc were found to correlate with concentration changes, and to be temperature dependent. In the absence of NOx, the effect of O2 on the low-frequency resistance could be described by a power law, and the temperature dependence described by a single apparent activation energy at all O2 concentrations. When both O2 and NOx were present, however, the power law exponent varied as a function of both temperature and concentration, and the apparent activation energy also showed dual dependence. Adsorption mechanisms are discussed as possibilities for the rate-limiting steps.
An impedancemetric technique for NOx sensing using a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrochemical cell is reported. The cell consists of a dense YSZ substrate disk with two YSZ/metal-oxide electrodes deposited on the same side. The cell is completely exposed to the test gas (no air reference). The NOx and O2 response of the cell were evaluated during constant-frequency operation at frequencies in the range from 1 to 1000 Hz. At 10 Hz, the NOx response (as measured by phase angle shift) is shown to be linear with concentration over the range from 8-50 ppm, with comparable response to both NO and NO2. A method of operation is described which enables compensation for the O2 response at oxygen concentrations greater than approximately 4%. This mode of operation allows the sensor to provide sub-10 ppm detection of NOx irrespective of the O2 concentration. The sensor exhibits good stability during continuous operation for more than 150 hr. It was observed that the O2 response of the cell may be too slow to be of practical use, taking several minutes to equilibrate after changing the concentration by a few percent. However, data will be presented which demonstrate that this response is related to the metal oxide used for the electrode, and that more rapid response times can be achieved by modification of the electrode material.
Dendrons and dendrimers containing cyclophosphazenes units in each generation have been synthesised by the convergent route for the first time. We also demonstrate the synthesis of dendrons containing precise numbers of benzyl protected alcohol functionalities.
In the single-step SOFC co-firing process YSZ electrolytes with sintering aid densify at a temperature of ˜1300°C. Electrodes employed in the single-step co-fired SOFC must therefore sinter with the right microstructure at ˜1300°C. Calcium-doped lanthanum ferrite, La0.8Ca0.2FeO3±δ (LCF-20) was identified in earlier studies as a possible stable cathode material for the single-step co-fired SOFC. LCF-20 is also expected to be a more stable cathode material than LSCF (strontium and cobalt doped lanthanum ferrite).
Four-probe conductivity tests yielded ˜93 S/cm at 800°C and showed an increase in conductivity as pO2 increases, characteristic of p-type conduction. LCF has a higher electrical conductivity compared to LSCF and LCM+YSZ cathode materials. Oxygen ion conductivity of LCF-20 obtained from permeability measurements is higher than that of YSZ and LSF-20. Therefore LCF has excellent mixed conducting properties to serve as a catalytically active cathode material for co-fired solid oxide fuel cells operating at intermediate temperatures.
Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were made on symmetrical cells fabricated with YSZ electrolyte and the electrode materials. A gadolium doped ceria (GDC) barrier layer was employed to prevent LCF/YSZ reaction. Comparison of LCF/GDC/YSZ/GDC/LCF EIS data to LCM+YSZ/YSZ/LCM+YSZ EIS data gathered using identical test conditions and electrode microstructures shows that LCF has a measured polarization resistance (Rp) of approximately half that seen in LCM+YSZ. Variations in cathode thickness and porosity show the best performance with a cathode of a critical thickness and finer porosity.
Slight stoichiometric deviations in LCF result in the formation of a Ca-Fe-O liquid phase during electrode sintering at around 1220 C. The liquid phase migrates into and through the GDC layer. EDX line scans show the second phase to be rich in Ca and Fe. Thicker GDC layers seem to prevent the liquid phase from reaching the electrolyte/GDC interface. Structural analysis with TEM will be performed.
The properties and the effect of the Ca-Fe-O phase on the cathodic performance of the cell are being investigated; however, preliminary results indicate that minor amounts of the Ca-Fe-O phase will not interfere with the electrochemical performance of the LCF cathode. The high temperature instability in LCF has been observed in other studies, but has not been studied specifically in the literature.
Based on the analysis of extensive experimental data, we have formulated basic criteria necessary for the synthesis of a variety of oxides in the combustion mode, and defined optimum conditions for the production of high-surface area, well-crystalline nano-powders of desired phase composition and purity. Also, for the first time, detailed chemical mechanisms of interaction for various systems are identified, outlining specific roles of different fuels, oxidizers and thermal conditions
Multiscale modeling using an embedded cluster approach is presented and applied to study the structure and properties of molecular crystals. We discuss the results of hydrostatic compression modeling of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene obtained with the embedded cluster model and the Hartree-Fock method and compare these with the full periodic crystal structure calculations. Details of the electronic structure of the perfect, highly compressed material are discussed. The results demonstrate the applicability of the embedded cluster model. We show that the band gap of the perfect material is not sensitive to hydrostatic compression, but some changes induced by the pressure take place in the valence band.
We studied photoluminescent properties and luminescent decay dynamics in Si quantum dots (QDs) produced by Si implantation in SiO2, and their modification by the application of an implantation mask. Silicon quantum dots were prepared by ion implantation, followed by high temperature annealing leading to nanocrystal nucleation and growth. The mask was prepared by spin-coating silica microspheres to achieve laterally-selective implantation, to control QD size and separation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images were obtained to verify the diameter of the quantum dots. We observe a noticeable peak shift and narrowing in the photoluminescence spectra with the application of the implantation mask. Observed maxima in the photoluminescence spectra are compared with a quantum field theoretical model using an infinite confining 1D potential for Si quantum dots. We comment on the role of excitation transfer by observing a change in the dispersion exponent of the luminescent decay dynamics due to the mask.