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Immigrant children in Denmark differ greatly in educational outcomes. This study examined whether systematic differences in majority language (L2) and preliteracy skills are apparent already at ages 2–6 in immigrant children in Denmark across regional immigration background. Danish language and preliteracy skills in 1,211 immigrant children in four regional groups (based on maternal origin) and 11,259 native Danish nonimmigrant children, all enrolled in Danish childcare centers, were assessed using an age- and gender-normed language assessment instrument. Hierarchical linear models showed that all four immigrant groups scored significantly lower than the native Danish group; the negative coefficients diminished but remained significant when socioeconomic background and having a native Danish father were controlled for. In addition, even with these controls, significant differences existed between some of the immigrant groups, suggesting that factors relating to regional immigrant background were important sources of differences in L2 development. A greater immigrant disadvantage for language than preliteracy skills was found; two immigrant groups did not differ significantly from the nonimmigrant Danish group for preliteracy skills. The results suggest that measures to reduce inequalities in long-term educational achievement between immigrant groups should be taken already before school with a particular focus on L2 language skills.
The Grönhögen-2015 core drilling on southern Öland, Sweden, penetrated 50.15 m of Cambrian Series 3, Furongian and Lower–Middle Ordovician strata. The Cambrian succession includes the Äleklinta Member (upper Stage 5) of the Borgholm Formation and the Alum Shale Formation (Guzhangian–Tremadocian). Agnostoids and trilobites allowed subdivision of the succession into eight biozones, in ascending order: the uppermost Cambrian Series 3 (Guzhangian) Agnostus pisiformis Zone and the Furongian Olenus gibbosus, O. truncatus, Parabolina spinulosa, Sphaerophthalmus? flagellifer, Ctenopyge tumida, C. linnarssoni and Parabolina lobata zones. Conspicuous lithologic unconformities and the biostratigraphy show that the succession is incomplete and that there are several substantial gaps of variable magnitudes. Carbon isotope analyses (δ13Corg) through the Alum Shale Formation revealed two globally significant excursions: the Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) in the lower–middle Paibian Stage, and the negative Top of Cambrian Excursion (TOCE), previously referred to as the HERB Event, in Stage 10. The δ13Corg chemostratigraphy is tied directly to the biostratigraphy and used for an improved integration of these excursions with the standard agnostoid and trilobite zonation of Scandinavia. Their relations to that of coeval successions in Baltoscandia and elsewhere are discussed. The maximum amplitudes of the SPICE and TOCE in the Grönhögen succession are comparable to those recorded in drill cores retrieved from Scania, southern Sweden. The results of this study will be useful for assessing biostratigraphic relations between shale successions and carbonate facies on a global scale.
The development of the helium ion microscope (HIM) enables the imaging of both hard, inorganic materials and soft, organic or biological materials. Advantages include outstanding topographical contrast, superior resolution down to <0.5 nm at high magnification, high depth of field, and no need for conductive coatings. The instrument relies on helium atom adsorption and ionization at a cryogenically cooled tip that is atomically sharp. Under ideal conditions this arrangement provides a beam of ions that is stable for days to weeks, with beam currents in the order of picoamperes. Over time, however, this stability is lost as gaseous contamination builds up in the source region, leading to adsorbed atoms of species other than helium, which ultimately results in beam current fluctuations. This manifests itself as horizontal stripe artifacts in HIM images. We investigate post-processing methods to remove these artifacts from HIM images, such as median filtering, Gaussian blurring, fast Fourier transforms, and principal component analysis. We arrive at a simple method for completely removing beam current fluctuation effects from HIM images while maintaining the full integrity of the information within the image.
Young clusters are observed to form in a variety of interacting galaxies and violent starbursts, a substantial number resembling the progenitors of the well-studied globular clusters in mass and size. By studying young clusters in merger remnants and peculiar galaxies, we can therefore learn about the violent star formation history of these galaxies. We present a new set of evolutionary synthesis models of our GALEV code specifically developed to include the gaseous emission of presently forming star clusters, and a new tool that allows to determine individual cluster metallicities, ages, extinction values and masses from a comparison of a large grid of model Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) with multi-color observations. First results for the newly-born clusters in NGC 1569 are presented.
We present a new set of evolutionary synthesis models of our GALEV code, specifically developed to include the gaseous emission of presently forming star clusters, in combination with an advanced tool to compare large model grids with multi-color broad-band observations of YSC systems. Tests and first applications are presented.
Evolutionary synthesis models for star clusters of various metallicities, including gaseous emission during the lifetime of the ionizing stars, are used to model star cluster systems comprising two populations: an old metal-poor globular cluster (GC) population similar to that of the Milky Way halo, and a second GC population of arbitrary metallicity. We investigate the time evolution of color distributions and luminosity functions for the two GC populations and compare with observations of E/SO galaxies. We show that multi-passband data for GC populations give clues to the relative ages and metallicities of the two subpopulations, and help constrain formation scenarios for their parent galaxies.
Star cluster formation is a major mode of star formation in the extreme conditions of interacting galaxies and violent star bursts. These newly-formed clusters are built from recycled gas, pre-enriched to various levels within the interacting galaxies. Hence, star clusters of different ages represent a fossil record of the chemical enrichment history of their host galaxy, as well as of the host galaxy’s violent star formation history. We present a new set of evolutionary synthesis models of our GALEV code, specifically developed to include the gaseous emission of presently forming star clusters, and a new tool to analyze multi-color observations with our models. First results for newly-born clusters in the dwarf star-burst galaxy NGC 1569 are presented.
Star cluster formation is a major mode of star formation in the extreme conditions of interacting galaxies and violent starbursts. Young clusters are observed to form in a variety of such galaxies, a substantial number resembling the progenitors of globular clusters in mass and size, but with significantly enhanced metallicity. From studies of the metal-poor and metal-rich star cluster populations of galaxies, we can therefore learn about the violent star formation history of these galaxies, and eventually about galaxy formation and evolution. We present a new set of evolutionary synthesis models of our GALEV code, with special emphasis on the gaseous emission of presently forming star clusters, and a new tool to compare extensive model grids with multi-color broad-band observations to determine individual cluster masses, metallicities, ages and extinction values independently. First results for young star clusters in the dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 1569 are presented. The mass distributions determined for the young clusters give valuable input to dynamical star cluster system evolution models, regarding survival and destruction of clusters. We plan to investigate an age sequence of galaxy mergers to see dynamical destruction effects in process.
To determine whether hydrogen peroxide vapor (HPV) could be used to decontaminate caliciviruses from surfaces in a patient room.
Feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV) were used as surrogate viability markers to mimic the noncultivable human norovirus. Cell culture supernatants of FCV and MNV were dried in triplicate 35-mm wells of 6-well plastic plates. These plates were placed in various positions in a nonoccupied patient room that was subsequently exposed to HPV. Control plates were positioned in a similar room but were never exposed to HPV.
Virucidal activity was measured in cell culture by reduction in 50% tissue culture infective dose titer for FCV and by both 50% tissue culture infective dose titer and plaque reduction for MNV.
Neither viable FCV nor viable MNV could be detected in the test room after HPV treatment. At least 3.65 log reduction for FCV and at least 3.67 log reduction for MNV were found by 50% tissue culture infective dose. With plaque assay, measurable reduction for MNV was at least 2.85 log units.
The successful inactivation of both surrogate viruses indicates that HPV could be a useful tool for surface decontamination of a patient room contaminated by norovirus. Hence nosocomial spread to subsequent patients can be avoided.
This article discusses the relation between knowing, learning and teaching in relation to early Palaeolithic technologies. We begin by distinguishing between three kinds of knowledge: knowing how, knowing what and knowing that. We discuss the relation between these types of knowledge and different forms of learning and long-term memory systems. On the basis of this analysis, we present three types of teaching: (1) helping and correcting; (2) showing; and (3) explaining. We then use this theoretical framework to suggest what kinds of teaching are required for the pre-Oldowan, the Oldowan, the early Acheulean and the late Acheulean stone-knapping technologies. As a general introductory overview to this special section, the text concludes with a brief presentation of the papers included.
We argue that Kline's analysis does not account for the evolutionary mechanisms that can explain the uniqueness of human teaching. We suggest that data should be complemented by an analysis of archaeological material with respect to what forms of teaching are required for the transmission of technologies over generations.
The Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS) is a new ground-based survey for transiting exoplanets. Our primary goal is to find the first statistically-significant sample of Neptunes and super-Earths that are bright enough for radial velocity confirmation. By measuring precise masses and radii we will constrain the bulk composition and internal structure of planets that span the transition between the gas giants and terrestrial planets. Our brightest exoplanets will also be suitable for atmospheric characterisation with large facilities such as the VLT, JWST and the E-ELT. NGTS construction began in June 2013, and the survey is due to commence in 2014.
Brain white matter changes (WMC) and depressive symptoms are linked, but the directionality of this association remains unclear.
To investigate the relationship between baseline and incident depression and progression of white matter changes.
In a longitudinal multicentre pan-European study (Leukoaraiosis and Disability in the elderly, LADIS), participants aged over 64 underwent baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical assessments. Repeat scans were obtained at 3 years. Depressive outcomes were assessed in terms of depressive episodes and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Progression of WMC was measured using the modified Rotterdam Progression scale.
Progression of WMC was significantly associated with incident depression during year 3 of the study (P = 0.002) and remained significant after controlling for transition to disability, baseline WMC and baseline history of depression. There was no significant association between progression of WMC and GDS score, and no significant relationship between progression of WMC and history of depression at baseline.
Our results support the vascular depression hypothesis and implicate WMC as causal in the pathogenesis of late-life depression.
Angle of arrival (AOA), time of arrival (TOA), and frequency of arrival (FOA) can be measured for a signal from multiple platforms. By combining such measurements it is possible to obtain high-accuracy emitter position estimates. This requires a data link with low latency and sufficient data-rate, and synchronization of the platforms in space, time, and search pattern. Typically several of the platforms will have to make their measurements in the radar sidelobes that require very high receiver sensitivity. This paper focuses on discussing how the sensitivity can be improved using antenna gain or signal processing.
This chapter focuses on visual complaints using the case of a 53-year-old woman who reports difficulties over the past 6 months in handling her work as a specialized clothes cutter in a garment factory. A quantified regional perfusion study using 99mTc SPECT eleven months after onset of symptoms showed significant hypoperfusion of the left parieto-temporal regions and very slight of the right parietal region. This was unchanged on repeat examination eight months later. The initial diagnostic impression was a focal cognitive deficit related to early Alzheimer's disease, non-familial. Atypical presentations of Alzheimer's disease account for about 15% of cases. This case falls under the umbrella of posterior cortical atrophy, first described by Benson et al. in 1988, usually presenting with visuospatial difficulties including visual fields defects. Donepezil was given and well tolerated up to 10 mg a day.