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We aimed to assess the feasibility of a simple new fifteen-item FFQ as a tool for screening risk of poor dietary patterns in a healthy middle-aged population and to investigate how the results of the FFQ correlated with cardiovascular risk factors and socio-economic factors.
A randomized population-based cross-sectional study. Metabolic measurements for cardiovascular risk factors and information about lifestyle were collected. A fifteen-item FFQ was created to obtain information about dietary patterns. From the FFQ, a healthy eating index was created with three dietary groups: good, average and poor. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess relationships between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors.
Men and women aged 50 years and living in Gothenburg, Sweden.
In total, 521 middle-aged adults (257 men, 264 women) were examined. With good dietary pattern as the reference, there was a gradient association of having obesity, hypertension and high serum TAG in those with average and poor dietary patterns. After adjustment for education and lifestyle factors, individuals with a poor dietary pattern still had significantly higher risk (OR; 95 % CI) of obesity (2·33; 1·10, 4·94), hypertension (2·73; 1·44, 5·20) and high serum TAG (2·62; 1·33, 5·14) compared with those with a good dietary pattern.
Baseline data collected by a short FFQ can predict cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged Swedish men and women. The FFQ could be a useful tool in health-care settings, when screening for risk of poor dietary patterns.
Ge dots embedded in Si offer the possibility of Si-based light detection at 1.3-1.55 μm. In this communication, we report a very efficient photo-detector based on a Si/SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor structure with 10 Ge dot layers (8 ML Ge each) incorporated in the basecollector junction. The device structures were grown using low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy, and fabricated for both normal and edge incidence with no electrical contact to the base. The processed Ge-dot transistor detectors revealed a rather low dark current density, 0.01 mA/cm2 at -2 V. Photoconductivity measurements were performed at room temperature. At 1.31 μm, responsivity values of 50 mA/W at normal incidence have been directly measured at Vce = -4 V, without involving any rescaling factor due to light coupling. This value is a ∼250-fold increase compared to a reference p-i-n diode with the same dot layer structure, due to the current amplification function of the transistor. For a rib waveguide device, a very high responsivity value of about 470 mA/W (Vce = -4V) has been obtained at 1.31 μm. Measurements were also performed at 1.55 μm, and the photo-response of the waveguide phototransistor was 25 mA/W, which is again a large improvement compared with the reference waveguide photodiode (∼1 mA/W). Moreover, time-resolved photoconductivity measurements have been carried out. The results have indicated that the device frequency performance is primarily limited by the emitterbase junction capacitance.
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