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The aim of this paper is to analyse how the nature of retirement is related to post-retirement life conditions among early retirees. As to the nature of retirement, we make use of the concepts of push, pull and jump to describe why individuals retire early. Push is analysed as an outcome of poor health and firings, pull as a mechanical (reflective) response to economic and symbolic signals of the welfare state, while jump is described as a reflexive process; jumpers strive for new experiences (a new life project) and/or social gains (to be more together with grandchildren). Post-retirement life conditions are analysed in a four-dimensional citizenship perspective: (a) economic, (b) social and (c) political citizenship, as well as the feeling of having (d) ‘equal social worth’ vis-à-vis fellow citizens. Results show that role transitions are strongly affected by the nature of retirement. Jumpers largely seem to be shielded from low levels of citizenship in old age. Those pushed out of the labour market indeed run a rather high risk of lacking citizenship, epitomised as loss of economic and social citizenship as well as a low sense of having equal social worth vis-á-vis fellow citizens. No conclusive results were found for older workers subject to pull. Pullers made up a rather small proportion of total sample.
Psychological treatment for functional somatic syndromes (FSS) has been found moderately effective. Information on how much treatment is needed to obtain improvement is sparse. We assessed the efficacy of a brief and extended version of group-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) v. enhanced care (EC) for patients with multiple FSS operationalised as Bodily Distress Syndrome multi-organ type.
In a randomised controlled three-armed trial, consecutively referred patients aged 20–50 with multiple FSS were randomly assigned to either (1) EC; (2) Brief ACT: EC plus 1-day workshop and one individual consultation; or (3) Extended ACT: EC plus nine 3-h group-based sessions. Primary outcome was patient-rated overall health improvement on the five-point clinical global improvement scale 14 months after randomisation. A proportional odds model was used for the analyses.
A total of 180 patients were randomised; 60 to EC, 61 to Brief ACT, and 59 to Extended ACT. Improvement on the primary outcome after Extended ACT was significantly greater than after EC with an unadjusted OR of 2.9 [95% CI (1.4–6.2), p = 0.006]. No significant differences were found between Brief ACT and EC. Of the 18 secondary outcomes, the only significant difference found was for physical functioning in the comparison of Extended ACT with EC.
Patients rated their overall health status as more improved after Extensive ACT than after EC; however, clinically relevant secondary outcome measures did not support this finding. Discrepancies between primary and secondary outcomes in this trial are discussed.
Following the discovery by Djorgovski et al. (1985) of a companion to the high redshift quasar PKS 1614+051, we initiated a systematic search for such objects with the Danish 1.5 meter telescope at La Silla. The observing technique is CCD exposures in narrow filters (FWHM=100Å) centered on the redshifted Lyα. For an exposure time of 40 min. Our limiting magnitude is around 22.0 (where the r.m.s. error is approximately ±0.15), according to test runs with DAOPHOT. The aim of the search is to clarify the nature of such companions: are they “primordial” galaxies? Lyα clouds associated with the quasar? - and how frequent is such a phenomenon? Up to now we have covered 26 fields around quasars with redshift ≥3.0 (which is about 25% of all high redshift quasars in the Veron and Veron Catalogue). Furthermore 12 fields around z≈2.5 has also been observed (see Table 1). A quick visual inspection of all our frames has not revealed any companions except for the object found by Djorgovski et al. (which is easily picked up by our technique). However, a thorough photometric reduction (using DAOPHOT) might reveal fainter candidates. Taken together with the fields reported observed by Hu and Cowie (1987) and Djorgovski et al. (1987), a total of about 50 fields have so far been observed. The preliminary conclusion is therefore that such companions, whatever they might be, are very rare, and certainly much rarer than similar systems found around quasars of low redshift.
In recent years scholars have observed a restrictive turn in West European immigrant integration policies towards conditioning access to permanent residence and citizenship on language proficiency, knowledge of history, institutions, culture and political values, national loyalty and labour market integration. This has been accompanied by a strong reaction among European politicians and publics emphasizing that newcomers must share in certain liberal-democratic values and virtues that characterize the national community. Yet, the influential scholar Christian Joppke argues, among others, that liberal values cannot define national particularity, nor can cultural integration be enforced because legislation and policies are legally and normatively constrained by the same liberal values. Hence, prevalent liberal conceptions of national identity are paradoxical and inconsequential for the formulation of public policies. This article critically examines this argument in detail. It argues that the paradox of universalism does not exist, and that therefore nationalism should not be dismissed as a central factor behind recent policy developments.
Silky windgrass and annual bluegrass are among the most troublesome weeds in northern European winter crops, while problems with rattail fescue have been especially linked to direct-drilling practices. This study investigated the germination patterns of silky windgrass, annual bluegrass, and rattail fescue in multiple water potentials and temperature regimes. Temperature and water potential effects were similar between silky windgrass and rattail fescue, but differed from annual bluegrass. The three grass weeds were able to germinate under low water potential (−1.0 MPa), although water potentials ≤−0.25 MPa strongly delayed their germination. Silky windgrass and rattail fescue seeds were able to germinate at 1 C, while the minimum temperature for annual bluegrass germination was 5 C. Germination of silky windgrass and rattail fescue was very similar across temperature and water potentials, which implies similar emergence flushes under field conditions, allowing management interventions to follow the same scheme.
Human milk decreases the risk of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), a severe gastrointestinal disease that occurs in 5–10 % of preterm infants. The prebiotic and immune-modulatory effects of milk oligosaccharides may contribute to this protection. Preterm pigs were used to test whether infant formula enriched with α1,2-fucosyllactose (2'-FL, the most abundant oligosaccharide in human milk) would benefit gut microbial colonisation and NEC resistance after preterm birth. Caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were fed formula (Controls, n 17) or formula with 5 g/l 2'-FL (2'-FL, n 16) for 5 d; eight 2'-FL pigs (50 %) and twelve Controls (71 %) developed NEC, with no difference in lesion scores (P=0·35); 2'-FL pigs tended to have less anaerobic bacteria in caecal contents (P=0·22), but no difference in gut microbiota between groups were observed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation and 454 pyrosequencing. Abundant α1,2-fucose was detected in the intestine with no difference between groups, and intestinal structure (villus height, permeability) and digestive function (hexose absorption, brush border enzyme activities) were not affected by 2'-FL. Formula enrichment with 2'-FL does not affect gut microbiology, digestive function or NEC sensitivity in pigs within the first few days after preterm birth. Milk 2'-FL may not be critical in the immediate postnatal period of preterm neonates when gut colonisation and intestinal immunity are still immature.
The present communication is concerned with the problem of calculating the rotation-vibration energies and the absorption intensities of a triatomic molecule from the effective nuclear potential energy function and the dipole moment surfaces within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (Born & Oppenheimer 1927). There are at least two astrophysical applications of such calculations:
— Detailed spectra of triatomic molecules can be computed under the conditions prevailing in stellar atmospheres and compared with observed spectra.
— Such spectra can also be used for constructing a wavenumber-dependent absorption coefficient which can be employed for opacity calculations as outlined, for example, by Jørgensen & Jensen (1993).
Use of antidepressants during pregnancy has been associated with a low
Apgar score in infants but a contribution from the underlying depressive
disorder might influence this association.
To estimate the effects of maternal depression and use of antidepressants
during pregnancy on low Apgar scores (<7) 5min after birth.
Register study on all pregnant women in Denmark from 1996 to 2006 linking
nationwide individualised data from the Medical Birth Register, the
Psychiatric Central Register and the National Prescription database.
Infants exposed to antidepressants during pregnancy had an increased rate
of a low Apgar score (odds ratio (OR) = 1.72, 95% CI 1.34-2.20). The
increased rate was only found among infants exposed to selective
serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIS) (OR =1.96, 95% CI 1.52-2.54), not
among those exposed to newer (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.40-1.74) or older
antidepressants (OR=0.53, 95% CI 0.19-1.45). Maternal depression before
or during pregnancy, without prescription of antidepressants, was not
associated with a low Apgar score (OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.11-1.74). Women who
had only used antidepressants prior to pregnancy had no increased rate of
a low Apgar score in their subsequent pregnancy, regardless of depression
Use of SSRls during pregnancy increases the risk of a low Apgar score
independently of maternal depression.
Noninversion tillage with tine- or disc-based cultivations prior to crop establishment is the most common way of reducing tillage for arable cropping systems with small grain cereals, oilseed rape, and maize in Europe. However, new regulations on pesticide use might hinder further expansion of reduced-tillage systems. European agriculture is asked to become less dependent on pesticides and promote crop protection programs based on integrated pest management (IPM) principles. Conventional noninversion tillage systems rely entirely on the availability of glyphosate products, and herbicide consumption is mostly higher compared to plow-based cropping systems. Annual grass weeds and catchweed bedstraw often constitute the principal weed problems in noninversion tillage systems, and crop rotations concurrently have very high proportions of winter cereals. There is a need to redesign cropping systems to allow for more diversification of the crop rotations to combat these weed problems with less herbicide input. Cover crops, stubble management strategies, and tactics that strengthen crop growth relative to weed growth are also seen as important components in future IPM systems, but their impact in noninversion tillage systems needs validation. Direct mechanical weed control methods based on rotating weeding devices such as rotary hoes could become useful in reduced-tillage systems where more crop residues and less workable soils are more prevalent, but further development is needed for effective application. Owing to the frequent use of glyphosate in reduced-tillage systems, perennial weeds are not particularly problematic. However, results from organic cropping systems clearly reveal that desisting from glyphosate use inevitably leads to more problems with perennials, which need to be addressed in future research.
Much research focusing on the welfare state is based on the assumption that welfare regimes are homogenous entities. This idea is supported by studies analysing cash benefits. In the area of welfare services, however, local governments in most countries have some autonomy regarding policy formation as well as the design and implementation of policies. In practice, substantial local differences exist with regard to the provision of welfare services, which in turn challenge our conception of nation-wide homogenous welfare state regimes. This paper examines the factors causing marked differences in local government spending in the provision of care for older people in Denmark. The conclusion is that the wealth of the municipality, local demographics and privatisation can explain about 48 per cent of the differences in local government spending. Political factors such as the ‘colour’ of local government have no explanatory power, while a high percentage of women in municipal councils appears to have a slightly negative effect on spending.
Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC) was developed to estimate dietary intake in a school meal intervention study among 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The present study validates self-reported fruit, juice and vegetable (FJV) intakes in 8- to 11-year-old children by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported their diet, the children's school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self-reported food and FJV consumption at school lunch was measured in terms of matches, intrusion, omission and faults, when compared with images and weights of lunch intake. Self-reported intake of FJV was significantly correlated with the total carotenoid concentration (0·58) (P< 0·01). Fruit and juice consumption showed higher correlations than vegetables with plasma carotenoid concentration (0·38 and 0·42 v. 0·33) (P< 0·01). A total of 82 % of the participants fell into the same or adjacent quartiles when cross-classified by FJV intake and carotenoids biomarkers. WebDASC attained 82 % reporting matches overall and a higher percentage match for reporting fruits compared with beverages. The present study indicated that WebDASC can be used to rank 8- to 11-year-old Danish children according to their intake of FJV overall and at school meals.
As the amygdala is part of the phylogenetic old brain, and its anatomical and functional properties are conserved across species, it is reasonable to assume genetic influence on its activity. A large corpus of candidate gene studies indicate that individual differences in amygdala activity may be caused by genetic variants within monoaminergic signaling pathways such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. However, to our knowledge, the use of genome-wide data to discover genetic variants underlying individual differences in adult amygdala activity is novel. In the present study, the combination of genome-wide data and functional imaging phenotypes from an emotional faces task yielded a significant association between rs10014254 and the amygdala using a region of interest approach. This single nucleotide polymorphism is located in a regulatory region upstream of the Paired-like homeobox 2b (PHOX2B) gene; therefore it could affect the expression of this gene. PHOX2B regulates the expression of enzymes necessary for the synthesis of several monoamines and is essential for the development of the autonomic nervous system. However, an attempt to replicate the finding in an independent sample from North America did not succeed. The synthesis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and genome-wide data takes a hypothesis-free approach as to which genetic variants are of interest. Therefore, we believe that an undirected finding within such a plausible region is of interest, and that our results add further support to the hypothesis that monoaminergic signaling pathways play a central role in regulating amygdala activity.
The immediate post-weaning period is often associated with gut malfunction and diarrhoea for young pigs. Administration of antimicrobials remains an effective way to control weaning diarrhoea but it remains unclear how they affect gut physiology and microbiology although this is a prerequisite for being able to devise better alternatives. Hence, for 7 d we treated pigs, weaned at 24 d of age, with a combination of amoxicillin (25 mg/kg feed and injection of 8·75 mg/kg body weight per 12 h) and ZnO (2·5 g/kg feed). The pigs treated with antimicrobials (n 11) showed no signs of gut malfunction at any time, whereas untreated weaned controls (n 11) developed clinical diarrhoea. The antimicrobial treatment resulted in a higher daily weight gain compared with weaned controls (101 v. − 44 g/d, P < 0·0001), whereas both groups had a similar degree of villous atrophy compared with unweaned 24-d-old controls (n 8; P < 0·05). The antimicrobial treatment gave a dramatic reduction in small intestinal microbial diversity, and specifically prevented tissue colonization with Escherichia coli compared with weaned controls. Further, the antimicrobial treatment improved amylase, trypsin and small intestinal aminopeptidase A and N activities (all P < 0·05). Specifically for the colon, the antimicrobial treatment was associated with reduced tissue weight ( − 23 %, P < 0·05), reduced concentration of SCFA (P < 0·05), and increased mucosal goblet cell area (P < 0·0001) compared with weaned controls. We conclude that the beneficial effects of antimicrobials are mediated not only through reduction in intestinal bacterial load, but also through a stimulation of protein digestive function and goblet cell density.
The intestine of newborn pigs develops rapidly during the first days postpartum. We investigated if feeding milk replacer (infant formula) as an alternative to colostrum has compromising effects on nutrient digestive function in the neonatal period. Nineteen piglets born at termwere assigned to one of four treatments: (1) newborn controls; (2) natural suckling for 24h; (3) tube-fed formula for 24h; (4) tube-fed porcine colostrum for 24h. All three fed groups showed significant increases in small-intestinal and colonic weights, villous heights and widths, maltase and aminopeptidase A activities, and decreases in dipeptidylpeptidase IV activity, relative to newborn pigs. Following oral boluses of mannitol, lactose or galactose, formula-fed pigs showed significantly reduced plasma levels of mannitol and galactose compared with colostrum-fed pigs. Activity of intestinal inducible NO synthase and plasma levels of cortisol were significantly increased, whereas intestinal constitutive NO synthase and α-tocopherol were decreased in formula-fed pigs compared with colostrum-fed pigs. Although formula-fed pigs only showed minor clinical signs of intestinal dysfunction and showed similar intestinal trophic responses just after birth, as those fed colostrum, lactose digestivecapacity was markedly reduced. We conclude that formula-feeding may exert detrimental effects on intestinal function in neonates. Formula-induced subclinical malfunction of the gut in pigsborn at term was associated with altered NO synthase activity and antioxidative capacity.
A strong and persistent effect of plant-derived foods on the prevention of lifestyle diseases has emerged from observational studies. Several groups of constituents in plants have been identified as potentially health promoting in animal studies, including cholesterol-lowering factors, antioxidants, enzyme inducers, apoptosis inducers etc. In human intervention studies the dose levels achieved tend to be lower than the levels found to be effective in animals and sampling from target organs is often not possible. A controlled dietary human intervention study was performed with forty-three volunteers, providing 600 g fruit and vegetables/d or in the controls a carbohydrate-rich drink to balance energy intake. Surrogate markers of oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipids, enzymic defence and lipid metabolism were determined in blood and urine. It was found that a high intake of fruit and vegetables tends to increase the stability of lipids towards oxidative damage. Markers of oxidative enzymes indicate a steady increase in glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) activity in erythrocytes during intervention with fruit and vegetables but there is no effect on GPX1 transcription levels in leucocytes. No change occurs in glutathione-conjugating or -reducing enzyme activities in erythrocytes or plasma, and there are no effects on the transcription of genes involved in phase 2 enzyme induction or DNA repair in leucocytes. Fruit and vegetable intake decreases the level of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, but does not affect sex hormones. In conclusion, it has been shown that total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, markers of peripheral lipid oxidation, and erythrocyte GPX1 activity are affected by high intakes of fruit and vegetables. This finding provides support for a protective role of dietary fruit and vegetables against CVD.
Solitary waves propagating horizontally in a stratified fluid are investigated. The fluid
has a shallow layer with linear stratification and a deep layer with constant density.
The investigation is both experimental and theoretical. Detailed measurements of
the velocities induced by the waves are facilitated by particle tracking velocimetry
(PTV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV). Particular attention is paid to the role
of wave breaking which is observed in the experiments. Incipient breaking is found
to take place for moderately large waves in the form of the generation of vortices
in the leading part of the waves. The maximal induced fluid velocity close to the
free surface is then about 80% of the wave speed, and the wave amplitude is about
half of the depth of the stratified layer. Wave amplitude is defined as the maximal
excursion of the stratified layer. The breaking increases in power with increasing wave
amplitude. The magnitude of the induced fluid velocity in the large waves is found to
be approximately bounded by the wave speed. The breaking introduces a broadening
of the waves. In the experiments a maximal amplitude and speed of the waves are
obtained. A theoretical fully nonlinear two-layer model is developed in parallel with
the experiments. In this model the fluid motion is assumed to be steady in a frame of
reference moving with the wave. The Brunt-Väisälä frequency is constant in the layer
with linear stratification and zero in the other. A mathematical solution is obtained
by means of integral equations. Experiments and theory show good agreement up to
breaking. An approximately linear relationship between the wave speed and amplitude
is found both in the theory and the experiments and also when wave breaking is
observed in the latter. The upper bound of the fluid velocity and the broadening of
the waves, observed in the experiments, are not predicted by the theory, however.
There was always found to be excursion of the solitary waves into the layer with
constant density, irrespective of the ratio between the depths of the layers.