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Psychological treatments provide many benefits for patients with psychiatric disorders, but research also suggests that negative effects might occur from the interventions involved. The Negative Effects Questionnaire (NEQ) has previously been developed as a way of determining the occurrence and characteristics of such incidents, consisting of 32 items and six factors. However, the NEQ has yet to be examined using modern test theory, which could help to improve the understanding of how well the instrument works psychometrically.
The current study investigated the reliability and validity of the NEQ from both a person and item perspective, establishing goodness-of-fit, item bias, and scale precision.
The NEQ was distributed to 564 patients in five clinical trials at post-treatment. Data were analysed using Rasch analysis, i.e. a modern test theory application.
(1) the NEQ exhibits fairness in testing across sociodemographics, (2) shows comparable validity for a final and condensed scale of 20 instead of 32 items, (3) uses a rating scale that advances monotonically in steps of 0 to 4, and (4) is suitable for monitoring negative effects on an item-level.
The NEQ is proposed as a useful instrument for investigating negative effects in psychological treatments, and its newer shorter format could facilitate its use in clinical and research settings. However, further research is needed to explore the relationship between negative effects and treatment outcome, as well as to test it in more diverse patient populations.
Psychotherapy can alleviate mental distress and improve quality of life, but little is known about its potential negative effects and how to determine their frequency.
To present a commentary on the current understanding and future research directions of negative effects in psychotherapy.
An anonymous survey was distributed to a select group of researchers, using an analytical framework known as strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.
The researchers perceive an increased awareness of negative effects in psychotherapy in recent years, but also discuss some of the unresolved issues in relation to their definition, assessment and reporting. Qualitative methods and naturalistic designs are regarded as important to pursue, although a number of obstacles to using such methods are identified.
Negative effects of psychotherapy are multifaceted, warranting careful considerations in order for them to be monitored and reported in research settings and routine care.
Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) is a promising approach for increasing access to evidence-based treatments.
To develop and evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an ICBT programme for young children with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), named BIP OCD Junior.
Eleven children aged 7–11 years were enrolled in a 12-week open trial of parent- and therapist-guided ICBT for OCD. The primary outcome measure was the Children's Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS).
There was a significant improvement in OCD symptoms post-treatment, with a large within-group effect size on the CY-BOCS (Cohen's d = 1.86, 95% CI 0.83 to 2.86). Results were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Both children and parents rated the treatment as credible and were highly satisfied with the intervention.
BIP OCD Junior is a feasible and credible treatment option for young children with OCD. Randomised controlled trials are needed to further establish its efficacy and cost-effectiveness relative to gold standard face-to-face CBT.
Violators of cooperation norms may be informally punished by their peers. How such norm enforcement is judged by others can be regarded as a meta-norm (i.e., a second-order norm). We examined whether meta-norms about peer punishment vary across cultures by having students in eight countries judge animations in which an agent who over-harvested a common resource was punished either by a single peer or by the entire peer group. Whether the punishment was retributive or restorative varied between two studies, and findings were largely consistent across these two types of punishment. Across all countries, punishment was judged as more appropriate when implemented by the entire peer group than by an individual. Differences between countries were revealed in judgments of punishers vs. non-punishers. Specifically, appraisals of punishers were relatively negative in three Western countries and Japan, and more neutral in Pakistan, UAE, Russia, and China, consistent with the influence of individualism, power distance, and/or indulgence. Our studies constitute a first step in mapping how meta-norms vary around the globe, demonstrating both cultural universals and cultural differences.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) are often used concomitantly to treat social anxiety disorder (SAD), but few studies have examined the effect of this combination.
To evaluate whether adding escitalopram to internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) improves clinical outcome and alters brain reactivity and connectivity in SAD.
Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled neuroimaging trial of ICBT combined either with escitalopram (n = 24) or placebo (n = 24), including a 15-month clinical follow-up (trial registration: ISRCTN24929928).
Escitalopram+ICBT, relative to placebo+ICBT, resulted in significantly more clinical responders, larger reductions in anticipatory speech state anxiety at post-treatment and larger reductions in social anxiety symptom severity at 15-month follow-up and at a trend-level (P = 0.09) at post-treatment. Right amygdala reactivity to emotional faces also decreased more in the escitalopram+ICBT combination relative to placebo+ICBT, and in treatment responders relative to non-responders.
Adding escitalopram improves the outcome of ICBT for SAD and decreased amygdala reactivity is important for anxiolytic treatment response.
Gestational weight gain (GWG) has in numerous studies been associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and childhood weight. However, these associations might be explained by genetic confounding as offspring inherit their mother's genetic potential to gain weight. Furthermore, little is known about whether particular periods of pregnancy could influence offspring body weight differently. We therefore aimed to explore total and trimester-specific effects of GWG in monozygotic (MZ) twin mother-pairs on their offspring's BW, weight at 1 year and body mass index (BMI) at 5 and 10 years. MZ twin mothers born 1962–1975 were identified in national Swedish registers, and data on exposure and outcome variables was collected from medical records. We analyzed associations within and between twin pairs. We had complete data on the mothers’ GWG and offspring BW for 82 pairs. The results indicated that total, and possibly also second and third trimester GWG were associated with offspring BW within the twin pairs in the fully adjusted model (β = 0.08 z-score units, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.17; β = 1.32 z-score units, 95% CI: -0.29, 2.95; and β = 1.02 z-score units, 95% CI: -0.50, 2.54, respectively). Our findings, although statistically weak, suggested no associations between GWG and offspring weight or BMI during infancy or childhood. Our study suggests that total, and possibly also second and third trimester, GWG are associated with offspring BW when taking shared genetic and environmental factors within twin pairs into account. Larger family-based studies with long follow-up are needed to confirm our findings.
Dietary patterns derived by statistical procedures is a way to identify overall dietary habits in specific populations. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise dietary patterns in Swedish adults using data from the national dietary survey Riksmaten adults 2010–11 (952 women, 788 men). Principal component analyses were used and two patterns were identified in both sexes: a healthy pattern loading positively on vegetables, fruits, fish and seafood, and vegetable oils, and negatively on refined bread and fast food, and a Swedish traditional pattern loading positively on potatoes, meat and processed meat, full-fat milk products, sweet bakery products, sweet condiments and margarine. In addition, a light-meal pattern was identified in women with positive loadings on fibre-rich bread, cheese, rice, pasta and food grain dishes, substitute products for meat and dairy products, candies and tea. The healthy pattern was positively correlated to dietary fibre (r 0·51–0·58) and n-3 (r 0·25–0·31) (all P<0·0001), and had a higher nutrient density of folate, vitamin D and Se. The Swedish traditional and the light-meal pattern were positively correlated to added sugar (r 0·20–0·25) and the Swedish traditional also to SFA (r 0·13–0·21) (all P<0·0001); both patterns were in general negatively correlated to micronutrients. Dietary pattern scores were associated with, for example, age, physical activity, education and income. In conclusion, we identified three major dietary patterns among Swedish adults. The patterns can be further used for examining the association between whole diet and health outcomes.
Gestational weight gain (GWG) is a complex trait involving intrauterine environmental, maternal environmental, and genetic factors. However, the extent to which these factors contribute to the total variation in GWG is unclear. We therefore examined the genetic and environmental influences on the variation in GWG in the first and second pregnancy in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin mother-pairs. Further, we explored if any co-variance existed between factors influencing the variation in GWG of the mothers’ first and second pregnancies. By using Swedish nationwide record-linkage data, we identified 694 twin mother-pairs with complete data on their first pregnancy and 465 twin mother-pairs with complete data on their second pregnancy during 1982–2010. For a subanalysis, 143 twin mother-pairs had complete data on two consecutive pregnancies during the study period. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to assess the contribution of genetic, shared, and unique environmental factors to the variation in GWG. A bivariate Cholesky decomposition model was used for the subanalysis. We found that genetic factors explained 43% (95% CI: 36–51%) of the variation in GWG in the first pregnancy and 26% (95% CI: 16–36%) in the second pregnancy. The remaining variance was explained by unique environmental factors. Both overlapping and distinct genetic and unique environmental factors influenced GWG in the first and the second pregnancy. This study showed that GWG has a moderate heritability, suggesting that a large part of the variation in the trait can be explained by unique environmental factors.
We use transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for in situ studies of electron-beam-induced crystallization behavior in thin films of amorphous transition metal silicon carbides based on Zr (group 4 element) and Nb (group 5). Higher silicon content stabilized the amorphous structure while no effects of carbon were detected. Films with Nb start to crystallize at lower electron doses than the Zr-containing ones. During the crystallization, equiaxed MeC grains are formed in all samples with larger grains for ZrC (∼5 nm) compared to NbC (∼2 nm). The phenomenon of self-terminating crystallization at a dimension of 2–5 nm is explained by segregation of Si that is expelled from growing metal carbide grains into the surrounding amorphous phase matrix, which limits diffusion of the metal and carbon.
We report that an electron beam focused for high-resolution imaging rapidly initiates observable crystallization of amorphous Me–Si–C films. For 200-keV electron irradiation of Nb–Si–C and Zr–Si–C films, crystallization is observed at doses of ~2.8 × 109 and ~4.7 × 109 e−/nm2, respectively. The crystallization process is driven by atomic displacement events, rather than heating from the electron beam as in situ annealing (400–600 °C) retains the amorphous state. Our findings demand a critical analysis of alleged amorphous and nanocrystalline ceramics including reassessing previous reports on nanocrystalline Me–Si–C films for possible electron-beam-induced crystallization effects.
Density-functional formalism is applied to study the ground state properties of γ-U-Zr and γ-U-Mo solid solutions. Calculated heats of formation are compared with CALPHAD assessments. We discuss how the heat of formation in both alloys correlates with the charge transfer between the alloy components. The decomposition curves for γ-based U-Zr and U-Mo solid solutions are derived from Ising-type Monte Carlo simulations. We explore the idea of stabilization of the δ-UZr2 compound against the α-Zr (hcp) structure due to increase of Zr d-band occupancy by the addition of U to Zr. We discuss how the specific behavior of the electronic density of states in the vicinity of the Fermi level promotes the stabilization of the U2Mo compound. The mechanism of possible Am redistribution in the U-Zr and U-Mo fuels is also discussed.
Background: Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT) has been found to be an effective way to disseminate psychological treatment, and support given by a therapist seems to be important in order to achieve good outcomes. Little is known about what the therapists actually do when they provide support in iCBT and whether their behaviour influences treatment outcome. Aims: This study addressed the content of therapist e-mails in guided iCBT for generalized anxiety disorder. Method: We examined 490 e-mails from three therapists providing support to 44 patients who participated in a controlled trial on iCBT for generalized anxiety disorder. Results: Through content analysis of the written correspondence, eight distinguishable therapist behaviours were derived: deadline flexibility, task reinforcement, alliance bolstering, task prompting, psychoeducation, self-disclosure, self-efficacy shaping, and empathetic utterances. We found that task reinforcement, task prompting, self-efficacy shaping and empathetic utterances correlated with module completion. Deadline flexibility was negatively associated with outcome and task reinforcement positively correlated with changes on the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Conclusions: Different types of therapist behaviours can be identified in iCBT, and though many of these behaviours are correlated to each other, different behaviours have an impact on change in symptoms and module completion.
Alkylresorcinols (AR) have been established as short/medium-term biomarkers for whole grain (WG) wheat and rye intake; and AR metabolites, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, have been suggested as complementary biomarkers to AR. The present study examined the medium-term reproducibility and relative validity of urinary AR metabolites as biomarkers for WG and cereal fibre intake. A total of sixty-six free-living Swedes completed 3 d weighed food records and provided single 24 h urine collections and morning urine spot samples on two occasions, 2–3 months apart. The medium-term reproducibility of urinary AR metabolites was moderate when assessed in 24 h collections and lower in creatinine (CR)-adjusted morning urine. Mean AR metabolite 24 h excretions correlated well with total WG (rs 0·31–0·52, P < 0·05) and cereal fibre (rs 0·46–0·58, P < 0·001) intake on both occasions. As expected, correlations with WG (rs 0·28–0·38, P < 0·05) and cereal fibre (rs 0·35–0·42, P < 0·01) were weaker for mean CR-adjusted AR metabolite concentrations in spot samples of morning urine, although the adjusted concentrations correlated well with 24 h urinary excretion (rs 0·69–0·73, P < 0·001). Adjustment for intra-individual variations substantially improved the correlations between intake and excretion. These findings suggest that urinary AR metabolites can successfully reflect the medium-term intake of WG and cereal fibre when adjusted for intra-individual variation in this population, where rye was the major contributor to high WG intake. The performance of urinary AR metabolites as medium-term biomarkers appears to be comparable to that of fasting plasma AR concentration in this population.
An all-printed organic smart pixel is achieved through the combination of an electrochemical transistor and an electrochromic display cell. Smart pixels of this kind are arranged into a cross-point matrix resulting in an active-addressed display. This type of display has been realized on coated fine paper, operates at voltages less than 2 Volts and exhibits good bistability properties. Here we report on the operation characteristics of electrochemical smart pixels in which the ion concentration of the electrolyte has been varied.
Background: Guided internet-delivered CBT for anxiety disorders has received increasing empirical support, but little is known regarding the role of the therapist. Aims: This study addressed therapist factors in guided internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders. Method: Data from three controlled trials with a total N of 119 were analyzed with attention to differences between eight therapists. Results: No significant mean level differences between therapists appeared in the dataset. However, one significant intraclass correlation between participants was found, suggesting that the outcome on the Beck Anxiety Inventory might have been influenced by the impact of the individual therapists. Conclusion: The therapist can possibly have some influence on the outcome of guided internet-delivered CBT for anxiety disorders, but studies with more statistical power are needed to establish whether therapist effects are present in this modality of psychological treatment. The present study was underpowered to detect minor therapist effects.
In the present study, we evaluated the cholesterol-lowering effects of different oat bran (OB) preparations, differing regarding their peak molecular weight (MWp) of β-glucans (2348, 1311, 241, 56, 21 or < 10 kDa), in C57BL/6NCrl mice. The diets were designed to be atherogenic (0·8 % cholesterol and 0·1 % cholic acid), and they reflected the Western diet pattern (41 % energy fat). All OB preparations that were investigated significantly reduced plasma cholesterol when compared with a cellulose-containing control diet, regardless of the molecular weight of β-glucan. Moreover, the difference in viscous properties between the processed OB (from 0·11 to 17·7 l/g) did not appear to play a major role in the cholesterol-lowering properties. In addition, there was no correlation between the molecular weight of β-glucan and the amount of propionic acid formed in caecum. Interestingly, however, there was a significant correlation between the ratio of (propionic acid+butyric acid)/acetic acid and the MWp of β-glucans: the ratio increased with increasing molecular weight. The results of the present study suggest that the molecular weights and viscous properties of β-glucan in oat products may not be crucial parameters for their cholesterol-lowering effects.
Internet-delivered self-help programmes with added therapist guidance have shown efficacy in social anxiety disorder, but unguided self-help has been insufficiently studied.
To evaluate the efficacy of guided and unguided self-help for social anxiety disorder.
Participants followed a cognitive–behavioural self-help programme in the form of either pure bibliotherapy or an internet-based treatment with therapist guidance and online group discussions. A subsequent trial was conducted to evaluate treatment specificity. Participants (n = 235) were randomised to one of three conditions in the first trial, or one of four conditions in the second.
Pure bibliotherapy and the internet-based treatment were better than waiting list on measures of social anxiety, general anxiety, depression and quality of life. The internet-based therapy had the highest effect sizes, but directly comparable effects were noted for bibliotherapy augmented with online group discussions. Gains were well maintained a year later.
Unguided self-help through bibliotherapy can produce enduring improvement for individuals with social anxiety disorder.
Cholesterol-lowering effects of oats have been demonstrated in both animals and human subjects. However, the crucial properties of oat-containing diets that determine their health effects need to be further investigated to optimise their use. A mouse model would be a valuable tool, but few such studies have been published to date. We investigated the effects of oat bran on plasma cholesterol and lipoproteins in two substrains of C57BL/6 mice. Western diet was made atherogenic by the addition of 0·8 % cholesterol and 0·1 % cholic acid. After 4 weeks on atherogenic diet, total plasma cholesterol had increased from 1·86–2·53 to 3·77–4·40 mmol/l. In C57BL/6NCrl mice, inclusion of 27 and 40 % oat bran reduced total plasma cholesterol by 19 and 24 %, respectively, reduced the shift from HDL to LDL+VLDL and caused increased faecal cholesterol excretion. There was no effect of oat bran on plasma levels of the inflammatory markers fibrinogen, serum amyloid A or TNF-α. Contrary to findings in C57BL/6NCrl mice, there was no sustained effect of oat bran (27 or 40 %) on plasma cholesterol in C57BL/6JBomTac mice after 4 weeks of feeding. Thus, C57BL/6NCrl mice fed an atherogenic diet are a good model for studies of physiological effects of oats, whereas a substrain derived from C57BL/6J, raised in a different breeding environment and likely possessing functional genetic differences from C57BL/6N, is considerably less responsive to oats. The present finding that two substrains of mice respond differently to oats is of practical value, but can also help to elucidate mechanisms of the cholesterol-lowering effect of oats.
Operating theatres are ventilated for a number of reasons, one of them being to keep numbers of airborne bacteria low at the operation wound. No matter how air is brought into the room, bacteria are removed by dilution rather than by air currents, because of turbulence caused by heat liberated by people and equipment and by movement in the room (Lidwell & Williams, 1960). With ventilation rates up to 20 air changes/hour, the dilution may differ at different sites in the room depending on the design of its ventilation system.