Mosquitoes are haematophagous vectors for hundreds of pathogenic viruses that are aetiological agents of human diseases. In nature, mosquito-borne viruses maintain a lifecycle between mosquitoes and vertebrate animals. Viruses are acquired by a naive mosquito from an infected host by blood meals and then propagate extensively in the mosquito's tissues. This mosquito then becomes a virus reservoir and is competent to transmit the viruses to a naive vertebrate host through the next blood meal. To survive in and efficiently cycle between two distinct host environments, mosquito-borne viruses have evolved delicate and smart strategies to comprehensively exploit host and vector factors. Here, we provide an update on recent studies of the mechanisms of virus survival in, acquisition and transmission by mosquitoes.