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The oxidation behavior of the selective laser melting (SLM)–fabricated Inconel 718 was investigated through isothermal oxidation testing at 650 °C for 500 h and compared with that of the as-cast and as-forged specimens at the same testing conditions. The effect of microstructure and surface roughness on the oxidation behavior of the SLM-fabricated, as-cast, and as-forged Inconel 718 specimens was examined. The result shows that Inconel 718 fabricated by SLM with the unique layer structure exhibited a better resistance to the 500 h oxidation at 650 °C compared with as-cast and as-forged 718 with coarse dendritic structure and uniform equiaxed grain microstructure, respectively. The influence of the surface roughness on the long-time oxidation resistance of SLM specimens is not pronounced compared with that of as-cast and as-forged specimens. The tiny dendrites instead of grain boundaries are a major influencing factor for the oxidation process of SLM specimens. The surface roughness has more evident influence on the oxidation resistance of as-forged specimens than that of the as-cast ones subjected to the 500 h oxidation at 650 °C.
The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of n-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA, at an EPA:DHA ratio of 150:500) and phytosterol esters (PS) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ninety-six NAFLD subjects were randomly assigned to the following groups: the PS group (receiving 3·3 g/d PS); the FO group (receiving 450 mg EPA + 1500 mg DHA/d); the PS + FO combination group (receiving 3·3 g/d PS and 450 mg EPA + 1500 mg DHA/d) and the PO group (a placebo group). The baseline clinical characteristics of the four groups were similar. The primary outcome was liver:spleen attenuation ratio (L:S ratio). The percentage increase in liver–spleen attenuation (≤1) in the PS + FO group was 36 % (P = 0·083), higher than those in the other three groups (PS group, 11 %, P = 0·519; FO group, 18 %, P = 0·071; PO group, 15 %, P = 0·436). Compared with baseline, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) was significantly decreased in the three study groups at the end of the trial (PS, P = 0·000; FO, P = 0·002; PS + FO, P = 0·001) and TNF-α was significantly decreased in the FO group (P = 0·036), PS + FO group (P = 0·005) and PO group (P = 0·032) at the end of the intervention. Notably, TGF-β was reduced significantly more in the PS + FO group than in the PO group (P = 0·032). The TAG and total cholesterol levels of the PS + FO group were reduced by 11·57 and 9·55 %, respectively. In conclusion, co-supplementation of PS and EPA + DHA could increase the effectiveness of treatment for hepatic steatosis.
SmTaO4 ceramics have excellent high-temperature phase stabilities and mechanical properties and show great potential for use as next-generation thermal barrier coating (TBC) materials. CeO2–SmTaO4 ceramics are prepared via high-temperature solid–state reaction. It retains a single monoclinic phase structure. Ce4+ was reduced to Ce3+ by high-temperature deoxidation, and the Ce3+ ions substitute for an equal number of Sm3+ ions. The CeO2–SmTaO4 ceramics had lower thermal conductivities [1.09–2.75 W/(m K)] than yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) [2.1–2.7 W/(m K)] at 100–800 °C, which decreased dramatically with increasing temperature. SmTaO4 doped with 2% CeO2 had lower thermal conductivity [1.09 W/(m K), 800 °C] than SmTaO4 [1.42 W/(m K), 800 °C] and 2% ZrO2-doped SmTaO4 ceramics [1.22 W/(m K), 800 °C]. The low thermal conductivity is attributed to Ce3+ substitution for an equal number of Sm3+ ions, and because Ce3+ ions are the strongest phonon scattering centers, they can decrease the phonon mean free path effectively. The thermal expansion coefficient of 8% CeO2–SmTaO4 ceramics is approximately 10.3 × 10−6 K−1 at 1200 °C, which is slightly higher than that of both YSZ (10.0 × 10−6 K−1) and SmTaO4 (9.58 × 10−6 K−1). The outstanding thermophysical properties indicate that CeO2–SmTaO4 ceramics are potential TBC materials.
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with high heritability and polygenic inheritance. Multimodal neuroimaging studies have also indicated that abnormalities of brain structure and function are a plausible neurobiological characterisation of schizophrenia. However, the polygenic effects of schizophrenia on these imaging endophenotypes have not yet been fully elucidated.
To investigate the effects of polygenic risk for schizophrenia on the brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity, which are disrupted in schizophrenia.
Genomic and neuroimaging data from a large sample of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia (N = 509) and healthy controls (N = 502) were included in this study. We examined grey matter volume and functional connectivity via structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Using the data from a recent meta-analysis of a genome-wide association study that comprised a large number of Chinese people, we calculated a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each participant.
The imaging genetic analysis revealed that the individual PGRS showed a significantly negative correlation with the hippocampal grey matter volume and hippocampus–medial prefrontal cortex functional connectivity, both of which were lower in the people with schizophrenia than in the controls. We also found that the observed neuroimaging measures showed weak but similar changes in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia.
These findings suggested that genetically influenced brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity may provide important clues for understanding the pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia and for the early diagnosis of schizophrenia.
The cyclic oxidation experiment of yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings deposited on NiCoCrAlYHf alloys by air plasma spraying was investigated at 1050 °C in air and in air containing water vapor. The results revealed that water vapor has a great influence on the oxidation resistance of the thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Compared with the samples oxidized in air atmosphere, TBCs oxidized in air containing water vapor had a longer lifetime. It was also found that different atmospheres could lead to different HfO2 formation positions, which could decrease the rumpling in the oxide layer. In particular, after the coatings on Hf-doped NiCoCrAlY were first pretreated in air containing water vapor for 24 h at 1050 °C, the lifetime of the pretreated coating was doubled compared to the coating in laboratory air only. The water vapor pretreatment of the coatings could be an important method for optimizing the lifetime of TBCs.
Hepatitis B constitutes a severe public health challenge in China. The Community-based Collaborative Innovation hepatitis B (CCI-HBV) project is a national epidemiological study of hepatitis B and has been conducting a comprehensive intervention in southern Zhejiang since 2009.
The comprehensive intervention in CCI-HBV areas includes the dynamic hepatitis B screening in local residents, the normalised treatment for hepatitis B infections and the upcoming full-aged hepatitis B vaccination. After two rounds of screening (each round taking for 4 years), the initial epidemiological baseline of hepatitis B in Qinggang was obtained, a coastal community in east China. By combining key data and system dynamics modelling, the regional hepatitis B epidemic in 20 years was predicted.
There were 1041 HBsAg positive cases out of 12 228 people in Round 1 indicating HBV prevalence of 8.5%. Of the 13 146 people tested in Round 2, 1171 people were HBsAg positive, with a prevalence of 8.9%. By comparing the two rounds of screening, the HBV incidence rate of 0.192 per 100 person-years was observed. By consulting electronic medical records, the HBV onset rate of 0.533 per 100 person-years was obtained. We generated a simulated model to replicate the real-world situation for the next two decades. To evaluate the effect of interventions on regional HBV prevalence, three comparative experiments were conducted.
In this study, the regional hepatitis B epidemic in 20 years was predicted and compared with HBV prevalence under different interventions. Owing to the existing challenges in research methodology, this study combined HBV field research and simulation to provide a system dynamics model with close-to-real key data to improve prediction accuracy. The simulation also provided a prompt guidance for the field implementation.
There have been significant interests and efforts in the field of impedance control on robotic manipulation over last decades. Impedance control aims to achieve the desired mechanical interaction between the robotic equipment and its environment. This paper gives the overview and comparison of basic concepts and principles, implementation strategies, crucial techniques, and practical applications concerning the impedance control of robotic manipulation. This work attempts to serve as a tutorial to people outside the field and to promote discussion of a unified vision of impedance control within the field of robotic manipulation. The goal is to help readers quickly get into the problems of their interests related to impedance control of robotic manipulation and to provide guidance and insights in finding appropriate strategies and solutions.
Fluctuation of pump power is one of the major sources of temporal and intensity noise in femtosecond fiber lasers. In this work, the transfer functions between the relative intensity noise (RIN) of the pump laser diode (LD) and the output RIN, between the RIN of the pump LD and timing jitter of femtosecond fiber lasers are systematically studied. It is demonstrated, for the first time to our knowledge, that the amplitude of the pump RIN transfer function can be effectively decreased by an intra-cavity narrow band-pass filter. In particular, for normal-dispersion lasers, the 3-dB bandwidth of the transfer function can also be narrowed by two-thirds, with a steeper falling edge. Furthermore, with the narrow band-pass filtering, the transfer function is almost independent of the net intra-cavity dispersion due to amplifier similariton formation. The proposed scheme can effectively isolate the pump-induced noise without the need of complex active pump LD control and intra-cavity dispersion management, thus providing an easy way for practical high-power, high-stability femtosecond fiber laser design and related high-precision applications outside the laboratory.
Air pollution is a persistent and well-established public health problem in India: emissions from coal-fired power plants have been associated with over 80,000 premature deaths in 2015. Premature deaths could rise by four to five times this number by 2050 without additional pollution controls. We site a model 500 MW coal-fired electricity generating unit at eight locations in India and examine the benefits and costs of retrofitting the plant with a flue-gas desulfurization unit to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions. We quantify the mortality benefits associated with the reduction in sulfates (fine particles) and value these benefits using estimates of the value per statistical life transferred to India from high income countries. The net benefits of scrubbing vary widely by location, reflecting differences in the size of the exposed population. They are highest at locations in the densely populated north of India, which are also among the poorest states in the country.
Owing to the development of new technologies, the epigenome, a second dimensional method for genome analysis has emerged. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and noncoding RNAs, regulate gene expression without changing the genetic sequence. These epigenetic mechanisms normally modulate gene expression, trans-generational effects and inherited expression states in various biological processes. Abnormal epigenetic patterns typically cause pathological conditions, including cancers, age-related diseases, and specific cartilage and bone diseases. Facing the rapidly developing epigenetic field, we reviewed epigenetic mechanisms and their involvement with the skeletal system and their role in skeletal development, homeostasis and degeneration. Finally, we discuss the prospects for the future of epigenetics.
The Wuhan Pre/Post-Natal Twin Birth Registry (WPTBR) is one of the largest twin birth registries with comprehensive medical information in China. It recruits women from the first trimester of pregnancy and their twins from birth. From January 2006 to May 2016, the total number of twins enrolled in WPTBR is 13,869 twin pairs (27,553 individuals). The WPTBR initiated the Wuhan Twin Birth Cohort (WTBC). The WTBC is a prospective cohort study carried out through incorporation of three samples. The first one comprises 6,920 twin pairs, and the second one, 6,949 twin pairs. Both are population-based samples linked to the WPTBR and include pre- and post-natal information from WPTBR. The second sample includes neonatal blood spots as well. Using a hospital-based approach, we recently developed a third sample with a target enrolment of 1,000 twin pairs and their mothers. These twins are invited, via their parents, to participate in a periodic health examination from the first trimester of pregnancy to 18 years. Biological samples are collected initially from the mother, including blood, urine, cord blood, cord, amniotic fluid, placenta, breast milk and meconium, and vaginal secretions, and later from the twins, including meconium, stool, urine, and blood. This article describes the design, recruitment, follow-up, data collection, and measures, as well as ongoing and planned analyses at the WTBC. The WTBC offers a unique opportunity to follow women from prenatal to postnatal, as well as follow-up of their twins. This cohort study will expand the understanding of genetic and environmental influences on pregnancy and twins’ development in China.
To determine the prevalence of high weight at different characteristics, understand the perceptions and behaviours towards high body weight, and determine potential influencing factors of body weight misperception among high-weight adults in Jilin Province.
A cross-sectional survey with complex sampling design was conducted. We described the prevalence and perception of high body weight.
Northeast China in 2012.
Adults (n 20 552) aged 18–79 years.
Of overweight individuals, 37·4 % considered themselves as ‘normal weight’, 4·8 % reported themselves as being ‘very thin’ and only 53·1 % were aware of their own weight being ‘overweight’. About 1·8 % of both male and female obese individuals perceived themselves as ‘very thin’. Only 29·1 % of obese people thought of themselves as ‘too fat’. Nearly 30·0 % of centrally obese men and women perceived that their waist circumference was about right and they were of ‘normal weight’; 5·7 % of the centrally obese even perceived themselves as being ‘very thin’. Only 51·8 and 12·5 % of centrally obese individuals reported themselves to be ‘overweight’ or ‘too fat’. Body weight misperception was more common in rural residents (OR; 95 % CI: 1·340; 1·191, 1·509). The prevalence of body weight misperception increased with age (middle age: 1·826; 1·605, 2·078; old people: 3·101; 2·648, 3·632) and declined with increased education level (junior middle school: 0·628; 0·545, 0·723; senior middle school: 0·498; 0·426, 0·583; undergraduate and above: 0·395; 0·320, 0·487).
Body weight misperception was common among adults from Jilin Province.
Container shipping is one of the most important transport modes in international trade. For a large-scale container shipping network, an optimisation model is proposed to minimise the total shipping cost of container flow. Considering the directional property of the container shipping process, a steering vector search pattern is incorporated in a Max-Min Ant System (MMAS) solving algorithm, and an orthogonal array method is adopted in parameter settings. In numerical experiments, a traditional ant colony algorithm and an MMAS algorithm based on a steering vector search pattern are used respectively to optimise the network of five node scales. The results show that a steering vector search pattern can speed up the computation process and improve the optimisation effect.
The present study was performed to identify the genotype of a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy family and investigate the clinicopathogenic characteristics and prognostic features of relevant genetic abnormalities. Target sequence capture sequencing was performed to screen for pathogenic alleles in a 32-year-old female patient (proband). Sanger sequencing was carried out to verify the results. Sanger sequencing was also performed on other family members to identify allele carriers. A survival analysis was carried out using published literature and our findings. We found that the proband and her son harboured a Gly716Arg sequence variant of the β-myosin heavy chain. Neither the proband’s father nor the mother were carriers of this sequence variant; thus, the mutation was classified as “de novo”. Further survival analysis revealed that female patients appear to have a longer life expectancy compared with males. Our study may provide an effective approach for the genetic diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Very high cycle bending fatigue behaviors of FV520B steel under fretting wear were studied by the ultrasonic fatigue technique. The specimen system for ultrasonic bending testing was designed and the stress distribution of fatigue specimen was obtained by finite element method. The microstructure of FV520B steel was characterized by means of optical microscope, transmission electron microscope, and energy-dispersive spectroscope. The P–S–N curve was drawn based on fatigue data. The micromorphology characteristics of fretting wear surface and fracture surface for fatigue specimen were observed. The results indicate that the microstructure of FV520B steel is mainly composed of lath martensite, ferrite, and precipitation particles, with some randomly distributed internal inclusions. The P–S–N curve shows that there exists no “conventional fatigue limit” and the fatigue life decreases continuously with the increase of applied stress Smax. Most of fatigue cracks are observed on fractography and initiate from the overlap region of fretting wear zone and stress concentration zone. The fracture failure for tested specimen is ascribed to fretting wear and bending vibration fatigue.
The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor in children with heart failure.
Methods and results
Plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor was determined in 61 children, including 41 children with heart failure, 20 children without heart failure, and 30 healthy volunteers. The correlations between plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor levels and clinical parameters were investigated. Moreover, the diagnostic value of N-terminal connective tissue growth factor levels was evaluated. Compared with healthy volunteers and children without heart failure, plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor levels were significantly elevated in those with heart failure (p<0.01). N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and left ventricular end-diastolic dimension were positively correlated with plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor levels (r=0.364, p=0.006; r=0.308, p=0.016), whereas there was a negative correlation between left ventricular ejection fraction and plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor (r=−0.353, p=0.005). Connective tissue growth factor was significantly correlated with the severity of heart failure (p<0.001). Moreover, addition of connective tissue growth factor to N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide did not significantly increase area under curve for diagnosing heart failure (area under curve difference 0.031, p>0.05), but it obviously improved the ability of diagnosing heart failure in children, as demonstrated by the integrated discrimination improvement (6.2%, p=0.013) and net re-classification improvement (13.2%, p=0.017) indices.
Plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor is a promising diagnostic biomarker for heart failure in children.