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Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with high heritability and polygenic inheritance. Multimodal neuroimaging studies have also indicated that abnormalities of brain structure and function are a plausible neurobiological characterisation of schizophrenia. However, the polygenic effects of schizophrenia on these imaging endophenotypes have not yet been fully elucidated.
To investigate the effects of polygenic risk for schizophrenia on the brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity, which are disrupted in schizophrenia.
Genomic and neuroimaging data from a large sample of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia (N = 509) and healthy controls (N = 502) were included in this study. We examined grey matter volume and functional connectivity via structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Using the data from a recent meta-analysis of a genome-wide association study that comprised a large number of Chinese people, we calculated a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each participant.
The imaging genetic analysis revealed that the individual PGRS showed a significantly negative correlation with the hippocampal grey matter volume and hippocampus–medial prefrontal cortex functional connectivity, both of which were lower in the people with schizophrenia than in the controls. We also found that the observed neuroimaging measures showed weak but similar changes in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia.
These findings suggested that genetically influenced brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity may provide important clues for understanding the pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia and for the early diagnosis of schizophrenia.
The plerocercoid (sparganum) of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei is the main aetiological agent of human sparganosis. To improve the current knowledge on S. erinaceieuropaei evolution, we performed multi-locus microsatellite typing of sparganum isolates from China for the first time. All available expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences for the Spirometra were downloaded from the GenBank. The identification and localization of microsatellites in ESTs was accomplished by MISA. Based on the selected microsatellites, the genetic structure of 64 sparganum isolates collected from 11 geographical locations in southwest China were investigated through principal component analysis, STRUCTURE analysis and neighbour-joining clustering. A total of 522 non-redundant ESTs containing 915 simple sequence repeats were identified from 12 481 ESTs screened. Five primer pairs were finally selected. Using these loci, a total of 12 alleles were detected in 64 sparganum isolates. Little variability was observed within each of geographical population, especially among isolates derived from Kunming of Yunnan (YN-KM) province. Both STRUCTURE analysis and the clustering analysis supported that two genotypes existed among the sparganum isolates from southwest China. In conclusion, five microsatellite markers were successfully developed, and sparganum population was observed to harbour low genetic variation, further investigation with deeper sampling was needed to elucidate the population structure.
The ODF calculation is, to a large extent, responsible for the increased interest in texture analysis. Accurate pole figures and ODF plots can be routinely obtained in the laboratory from x-ray units equipped with precision controlling devices. For studies of the plastic flow behavior of polycrystalline aggregates, it is important to present the texture results in a manner readily usable for these analyses. For samples having a simple concentrated texture, the presentation of the data in terms of conventional pole figures and ODF plots is usually adequate. Additional work however is frequently needed when the analysis is involved with a more complex texture. A method is described for constructing the quantitative inverse pole figure using the available ODF data. Attention is focused on the construction of inverse pole figures for FCC and BCC metals. Examples are given of the plastic flow analyses for copper and tantalum which were produced by different cold-forming processes to yield a multitude of texture elements. The modification and rearrangement of the computer program necessary to accomplish this task will be discussed.
The cyclic oxidation experiment of yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings deposited on NiCoCrAlYHf alloys by air plasma spraying was investigated at 1050 °C in air and in air containing water vapor. The results revealed that water vapor has a great influence on the oxidation resistance of the thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Compared with the samples oxidized in air atmosphere, TBCs oxidized in air containing water vapor had a longer lifetime. It was also found that different atmospheres could lead to different HfO2 formation positions, which could decrease the rumpling in the oxide layer. In particular, after the coatings on Hf-doped NiCoCrAlY were first pretreated in air containing water vapor for 24 h at 1050 °C, the lifetime of the pretreated coating was doubled compared to the coating in laboratory air only. The water vapor pretreatment of the coatings could be an important method for optimizing the lifetime of TBCs.
We introduce an efficient, automated computational approach for analyzing interfaces within atom probe tomography datasets, enabling quantitative mapping of their thickness, composition, as well as the Gibbsian interfacial excess of each solute. Detailed evaluation of an experimental dataset indicates that compared with the composition map, the interfacial excess map is more robust and exhibits a relatively higher resolution to reveal compositional variations. By field evaporation simulations with a predefined emitter mimicking the experimental dataset, the impact of trajectory aberrations on the measurement of the thickness, composition, and interfacial excess of the decorated interface are systematically analyzed and discussed.
There is emerging evidence that glycaemic variability (GV) plays an important role in the development of diabetic complications. The current study aimed to compare the effects of lifestyle intervention (LI) with and without partial meal replacement (MR) on GV. A total of 123 patients with newly diagnosed and untreated type 2 diabetes (T2D) were randomised to receive either LI together with breakfast replacement with a liquid formula (LI+MR) (n 62) or LI alone (n 61) for 4 weeks and completed the study. Each participant was instructed to have three main meals per d and underwent 72-h continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) both before and after intervention. Measures of GV assessed by CGM included the incremental AUC of postprandial blood glucose (AUCpp), standard deviation of blood glucose (SDBG), glucose CV and mean amplitude of glycaemic excursions (MAGE). After a 4-week intervention, the improvements in systolic blood pressure (P=0·046) and time in range (P=0·033) were more pronounced in the LI+MR group than in the LI group. Furthermore, LI+MR caused significantly greater improvements in all GV metrics including SDBG (P=0·005), CV (P=0·002), MAGE (P=0·016) and AUCpp (P<0·001) than did LI. LI+MR (v. LI) was independently associated with improvements in GV after adjustment of covariates (all P<0·05). Our study showed that LI+MR led to significantly greater improvements in GV compared with LI, suggesting that LI+MR could be an effective treatment to alleviate glucose excursions.
Liquid films can be entrained when the dewetting velocity attains a threshold, and this dynamical wetting transition has been well studied in the situation of plane substrates. We investigate the forced dewetting in a capillary tube using diffuse-interface simulations and lubrication analysis, focusing on the onset of wetting transition and subsequent interface evolution. Results show that the meniscus remains stable when the displacing rate is below a threshold, beyond which film entrainment occurs and eventually leads to the formation of Taylor bubbles separated by liquid slugs, as has also been observed in the recent experiments of Zhao et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 120, 2018, 084501). We derive an analytical solution of the critical capillary number, and demonstrate that the wetting transition is accompanied by a vanishing apparent contact angle and an abrupt drop of the contact-line velocity. Both the bubble and slug lengths are found to depend on the capillary number and the wettability of the wall. A theoretical formula for the bubble length is also proposed and compares favourably with numerical and experimental results.
AgBr-modified Bi2WO6 nanosheets were successfully synthesized using a CTAB-assisted hydrothermal method followed by a facile deposition–precipitation procedure. The as-prepared photocatalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), and photoluminescence emission spectroscopy (PL). AgBr nanoparticles were found evenly distributed on the surface of the Bi2WO6 nanosheets. The AgBr/Bi2WO6 nanocomposite demonstrated enhanced pollutant decolorization efficiency in eliminating Rhodamine B (RhB), methyl orange (MO), and phenol aqueous solutions under simulated solar light irradiation. It has been noticed that the adsorption performance of both Bi2WO6 nanosheets and AgBr-modified Bi2WO6 nanosheets played a more important role in the decolorization of pollutants, such as RhB and MO, than their photocatalytic ability. The high adsorption efficiency of the photocatalysts was mainly attributed to the increased surface area and the exposed reactive facets of the materials.
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease that typically affects formula-fed premature infants, suggesting that dietary components may influence disease pathogenesis. TAG are the major fat components of infant formula, and their digestion requires pancreatic lipases, which may be naturally deficient in premature neonates. We hypothesise that NEC develops partly from the accumulation of incompletely digested long-chain TAG-containing unsaturated fatty acids within the intestinal epithelial cells, leading to oxidative stress and enterocyte damage. We further hypothesise that the administration of a formula that contains reduced TAG (‘pre-digested fat’) that do not require lipase action may reduce NEC severity. To test these hypotheses, we induced NEC in neonatal mice using three different fat formulations, namely ‘standard fat’, ‘pre-digested fat’ or ‘very low fat’, and determined that mice fed ‘standard fat’ developed severe NEC, which was significantly reduced in mice fed ‘pre-digested fat’ or ‘very low fat’. The expression level of the critical fat-digesting enzyme carboxyl ester lipase was significantly lower in the newborn compared with older pups, leading to impaired fat digestion. The accumulation of mal-digested fat resulted in the significant accumulation of fat droplets within the intestinal epithelium of the distal ileum, resulting in the generation of reactive oxygen species and intestinal inflammation. Strikingly, these changes were prevented in pups fed ‘pre-digested fat’ or ‘very low fat’ formulas. These findings suggest that nutritional formula containing a pre-digested fat system may overcome the natural lipase deficiency of the premature gut, and serve as a novel approach to prevent NEC.
While hydrodynamic interactions for aggregates of swimmers have received significant attention in the low Reynolds number realm (
), there has been far less work at higher Reynolds numbers, in which fluid and body inertia are involved. Here we study the collective behaviour of multiple self-propelled plates in tandem configurations, which are driven by harmonic flapping motions of identical frequency and amplitude. Both fast modes with compact configurations and slow modes with sparse configurations were observed. The Lighthill conjecture that orderly configurations may emerge passively from hydrodynamic interactions was verified on a larger scale with up to eight plates. The whole group may consist of subgroups and individuals with regular separations. Hydrodynamic forces experienced by the plates near their multiple equilibrium locations are all springlike restoring forces, which stabilize the orderly formation and maintain group cohesion. For the cruising speed of the whole group, the leading subgroup or individual plays the role of ‘leading goose’.
The development of advanced fuel fabrication technologies is important for developing accident-tolerant fuels and engineering fuels for safer and more effective nuclear energy systems. In this work, commercial-size uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel pellets with a theoretical density of 95% were consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 1600°C for 5 min. Systematic investigations suggest uniform densification and stoichiometric UO2 with an ideal fluorite structure across the commercial-size fuel pellet, but with a distributed grain structure because of non-uniform distribution of temperature during sintering. This work demonstrates a great potential of using SPS for fabricating nuclear fuels at a cost-effective manner.
Energetic benefit and enhanced performance are considered among the most fascinating achievements of collective behaviours, e.g. fish schools and flying formations. The collective locomotion of two self-propelled flapping plates initially in a side-by-side arrangement is investigated numerically. Both in-phase and antiphase oscillations for the two plates are considered. It is found that the plates will spontaneously form some stable configurations as a result of the flow-mediated interaction, specifically, the staggered-following (SF) mode and the alternate-leading (AL) mode for the in-phase scenario and the moving abreast (MA) mode and the AL mode for the antiphase scenario. In the SF mode, the rear plate follows the front one with a staggered configuration. In the AL mode, the plates chase each other side-by-side alternately. In terms of propulsive speed and efficiency, the performance of the plates in the SF mode with small lateral spacing
is found to be better than those in the tandem following case (
) and the side-by-side case (i.e. the AL mode). To achieve higher propulsive efficiency, no matter in-phase or antiphase oscillations, the two plates with moderate bending stiffness, e.g.
, are preferred and they should be close enough in the lateral direction. For the side-by-side configuration, the performance of each plate in the antiphase and in-phase scenarios is enhanced and weakened in comparison with that of the isolated plate, respectively. Besides the pressure and vorticity contours, the normal force and thrust acting on the plates are also analysed. It is revealed that the thrust is mainly contributed by the normal force at moderate bending stiffness. The normal force and thrust are critical to the propulsive speed and efficiency. For two self-propelled plates, in view of hydrodynamics, to achieve higher performance the in-phase SF mode and antiphase flappings in the side-by-side configuration are preferred.
A high power laser system was used to drive the ignition of inertial confinement fusion (ICF), of which the high energy, the uniform focal spot, the accurate laser waveform, and the synchronization between the laser beams are key parameters. To accomplish this, global laser characteristics control should be assured, which was the main purpose of the injection laser system. In this paper, the key technological progress involved in the improvement of the performance of the injection laser of SG-II is reported, including frequency domain control, time domain control, near-field spatial shaping, pre-amplifier technology, and the optical parametric chirped pulse amplification pump source.
For instrumented spherical indentation, the presence of equibiaxial residual stress in a material will lead the indentation load–depth curve to shift upward or downward. The load differences between the stressed and stress-free curves were used to estimate the equibiaxial residual stress. Using dimensional analysis and finite element simulations, the equibiaxial residual stress was related to the elastic–plastic parameters and the relative load difference at a fixed normalized indentation depth (h/R = 0.1). Based on these expressions, and together with the method for determining elastic–plastic parameters established in our previous work, an integrated method was proposed to estimate the equibiaxial residual stress and elastic–plastic parameters of metals simultaneously via instrumented spherical indentation. This method avoids preknowledge of the yield strength and measuring the contact area. Applications were illustrated on Al 2024, Al 7075, and Ti Grade 5 with introduced stresses. By comparing the results determined by this integrated method with the reference values, the maximum relative error is generally within ±10% for the yield strength, within ±15% for the elastic modulus, and within ±20% for the equibiaxial residual stress.
Porous carbon nanomaterials with significant capacitive performance were successfully prepared through a simple two-step process of thermal-polymerization and carbonization without an additional template. As a result, the as-prepared porous carbon nanomaterials of sample-A and sample-B exhibited an amorphous phase with low graphitization. And sample-A showed a moderate specific surface area of 476.39 m2/g, larger than that of sample-B (280.94 m2/g). The relatively high mass specific capacitance of 205.1 F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV/s and 211 F/g at a current density of 4 A/g was obtained by sample-A, which are higher than those of sample-B (82.6 F/g at 5 mV/s and 78.6 F/g at 4 A/g). Sample-A also showed excellent conductivity and superior cyclic stability with 94.19% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles, which are also higher than those of sample-B. This work proposed a cost-effective, green, and promising strategy for the large-scale preparation of porous carbon nanomaterial electrodes.
In this paper, we investigate the ratchet mechanism of drops climbing a vibrated oblique plate based on three-dimensional direct numerical simulations, which for the first time reproduce the existing experiment (Brunet et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 99, 2007, 144501). With the help of numerical simulations, we identify an interesting and important wetting behaviour of the climbing drop; that is, the breaking of symmetry due to the inclination of the plate with respect to the acceleration leads to a hysteresis of the wetted area in one period of harmonic vibration. In particular, the average wetted area in the downhill stage is larger than that in the uphill stage, which is found to be responsible for the uphill net motion of the drop. A new hydrodynamic model is proposed to interpret the ratchet mechanism, taking account of the effects of the acceleration and contact angle hysteresis. The predictions of the theoretical analysis are in good agreement with the numerical results.
During the 19th Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition from December 2002 to January 2003, 1085 icebergs were observed along the cruise track within the range 58–68° S in the Southern Ocean using the marine radar on the R/V Xuelong. These icebergs were located mainly in the Ross Sea, Weddell Sea and Prydz Bay with lengths ranging from 68 to 8169 m. Both power-law and Weibull functions are applied to the curve fitting of cumulative probability distribution of iceberg length in each region. The results reveal that the power-law function underestimates the measured data in the middle of the data, but overestimates them for both the smallest and largest iceberg sizes, whereas the Weibull function underestimates the measured data when iceberg length is large enough. To reduce the relative error increasing with iceberg length, the Weibull function is used only in fitting to iceberg lengths less than a threshold value of iceberg size (Lt) and the power-law function is used in fitting to iceberg lengths >Lt. The improved curve fits show a good correlation over the full range of the data. This clearly reveals that an upper limit of iceberg length exists in the good agreement between the Weibull function and the measured data, which is attributed to different thermodynamic effects on calving processes and subsequent modification of large and small icebergs. In addition, iceberg size in Prydz Bay increases and then decreases when approaching the Amery Ice Shelf as a result of bergy bits and growlers calved from large icebergs in front of the ice shelf.
Airborne and spaceborne remote sensing of ice freeboard offers a good method of retrieving ice thickness in the polar oceans. However, its accuracy is highly limited by the factors altering the hydrostatic equilibrium of ice floes, such as snow cover and melt ponds which change the surface loading on the ice volume. In contrast to the abundant studies on snow loads, little attention has been paid to the role of melt ponds, partly owing to the difficulties of freeboard measurements during the melt season. To help fill this gap and provide a basis for possible instruments and algorithms being able to access ice freeboard with melting surface in future, a theoretical model was developed to investigate the uncertainty in ice thickness retrieval due to surface melting. First, the ice thickness was related to the freeboard, snow depth, melt pond size and densities of snow, ice and water, and then a sensitivity analysis was carried out to study the influence of melt pond morphology. The results show that melting ice has a much lower mean thickness than ice without a melting surface, although with the same freeboard because of a loss of floe weight due to melting. During pond evolution, a floe gains weight when ponds deepen on the vertical scale, but loses weight when they widen on the horizontal scale, resulting in increasing mean ice thickness with decreasing pond depth and fraction. Freeboard is found to be the major source of uncertainty in the retrieved thickness of first-year ice (FYI), while it is ice density in the case of multi-year ice (MYI). The ratio of ice draft to freeboard ranges from 3.0 to 6.2 for FYI and 2.0 to 4.1 for MYI, agreeing with field observations during melting seasons.