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A Pickering emulsion was prepared via synergistic stabilization of a lipase and palygorskite particles. The optimum conditions for the stabilization of the Pickering emulsion, such as the concentrations of the palygorskite particles and lipase, were explored. The morphology of emulsion droplets was examined using digital optical microscopy and polarizing optical microscopy. The palygorskite–lipase co-stabilized Pickering emulsions were investigated by determination of the adsorption rate, pH and zeta potential of the aqueous dispersion, as well as by determining the contact angle values of the lipase solution on a palygorskite disc that was immersed in toluene. The catalytic performance of the immobilized lipase in the Pickering emulsion was studied via the investigation of its thermal stability, storage stability and reusability. The immobilized lipase showed greater stability than the free lipase. The lipase immobilized by Pickering emulsion retained a high level of activity even after seven periods of recycling.
This study examined the role of social support in managing worry among a sample of Malaysian adults. An online questionnaire was completed by 136 participants (age M = 34, SD = 7.65; 71% female, 29% male). Each wrote open-ended, essay-type descriptions of their experiences with social support in relation to worry, as well as completing measures of pathological worry (Penn State Worry Questionnaire), normal worry (Worry Domains Questionnaire), and perceived social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support). Results indicated that young adults experienced a higher degree of normal worry compared to older adults, but pathological worry was not significantly different between the two groups. No significant differences in worry were found in relation to gender, ethnicity or marital status. Perceived social support was negatively related to levels of both normal and pathological worry. Qualitative analyses pointed towards four important roles for social support: providing a sense of belonging and security, providing emotional relief or catharsis, helping to reappraise situations, and facilitating problem-solving and decision-making. The role of social support as a secure base that facilitates emotion management and helps to ground thinking is discussed.
The Longmu Co–Shuanghu suture zone, which divides the Qiangtang terrane into the northern and southern Qiangtang blocks, is regarded as a key locality in reconstructing the evolutionary history of the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean and the break-up of Gondwana. However, although low-temperature – high-pressure metamorphic rocks and ophiolites have been documented within the Longmu Co–Shuanghu suture zone, it remains unclear whether it is an in situ suture zone and represents the relic of the main Palaeo-Tethys Ocean. The uncertainty stems mainly from the limited systematic studies of the provenance, palaeontological evidence and depositional settings of strata on either side of the Longmu Co–Shuanghu suture zone (i.e. northern and southern Qiangtang blocks). Here we report new detrital zircon U–Pb ages and palaeontological data from Lower Carboniferous strata (Riwanchaka Formation) of the northern Qiangtang block, central Tibet. The Riwanchaka Formation contains warm-climate biota with Cathaysian affinities. Provenance analysis reveals that the formation has detrital zircon spectra similar to those from strata of the Yangtze Plate, and it contains a large proportion of zircons with ages (~360 Ma) similar to the timing of synsedimentary magmatic arc activity, implying an active continental margin setting associated with northward subduction of the Palaeo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. Conversely, the Carboniferous–Permian strata from the southern Qiangtang block contain cool-water faunas of Gondwanan affinity and exhibit minimum zircon crystallization ages that are markedly older than their depositional ages, suggesting a passive continental margin setting. The differences in provenance, palaeontological assemblages and depositional settings of the Carboniferous to Permian strata either side of the Longmu Co–Shuanghu suture zone indicate the existence of an ancient ocean between the northern and southern Qiangtang blocks. Combining the new findings with previous studies on high-pressure metamorphic rocks, arc magmatism and ophiolites, we support the interpretation that the Longmu Co–Shuanghu suture zone is an in situ suture zone that represents the main suture of the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean.
In the context of insurance, the smallest and largest claim amounts turn out to be crucial to insurance analysis since they provide useful information for determining annual premium. In this paper, we establish sufficient conditions for comparing extreme claim amounts arising from two sets of heterogeneous insurance portfolios according to various stochastic orders. It is firstly shown that the weak supermajorization order between the transformed vectors of occurrence probabilities implies the usual stochastic ordering between the largest claim amounts when the claim severities are weakly stochastic arrangement increasing. Secondly, sufficient conditions are established for the right-spread ordering and the convex transform ordering of the smallest claim amounts arising from heterogeneous dependent insurance portfolios with possibly different number of claims. In the setting of independent multiple-outlier claims, we study the effects of heterogeneity among sample sizes on the stochastic properties of the largest and smallest claim amounts in the sense of the hazard rate ordering and the likelihood ratio ordering. Numerical examples are provided to highlight these theoretical results as well. Not only can our results be applied in the area of actuarial science, but also they can be used in other research fields including reliability engineering and auction theory.
To obtain rich information about the cognitive diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD), this study attempted to retrofit a traditional borderline personality questionnaire so that the improved assessment (called CDA-BPD) could provide more diagnostic information. The retrofitting processes included the following steps: (1) applied an cognitive diagnosis model to analyze the psychometric characteristics of the traditional questionnaire; (2) under the guidance of cognitive diagnosis assessment (CDA), high-quality items were chosen to develop the CDA-BPD and tested on 1,097 subjects; (3) the quality of the CDA-BPD was evaluated; (4) the structure of the CDA-BPD was analyzed. Results indicated that: (1) the CDA-BPD had acceptable reliability and validity; (2) the CDA-BPD had sensitivity of 0.985 and specificity of 0.853 with area under curve (AUC) = 0.956; (3) the two structural factors of the traditional questionnaire were confirmed in the CDA-BPD; χ2 was 83.01 with df = 26, p < .0001, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.97, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.045. It was concluded that the practice of retrofitting a traditional borderline personality assessment for cognitive diagnostic purpose was feasible. Most importantly, under the cognitive diagnosis model framework, CDA-BPD could simultaneously provide general-level information and the detailed symptom criteria-level information about the posterior probability of satisfying each symptom criterion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) for each individual, which gave further insight into tailoring individual-specific treatments for borderline personality disorder.
The development of advanced fuel fabrication technologies is important for developing accident-tolerant fuels and engineering fuels for safer and more effective nuclear energy systems. In this work, commercial-size uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel pellets with a theoretical density of 95% were consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 1600°C for 5 min. Systematic investigations suggest uniform densification and stoichiometric UO2 with an ideal fluorite structure across the commercial-size fuel pellet, but with a distributed grain structure because of non-uniform distribution of temperature during sintering. This work demonstrates a great potential of using SPS for fabricating nuclear fuels at a cost-effective manner.
The experiments reported in this research communication aimed to plot the expression pattern of Sirt3, a master regulator of energy metabolism and antioxidation defence, in the liver of dairy goats during perinatal period. Ten healthy dairy goats in late pregnancy were chosen, and needle biopsy was applied to collect liver samples at 1-week intervals. Protein levels of hepatic Sirt3 were analysed by western-blotting. Serum enzyme activities of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) levels were measured, and their correlation with Sirt3 mRNA levels was also estimated. Compared with >3-week before parturition (BP), Sirt3 proteins were significantly reduced at 1-week after parturition (AP) and 2-week AP (P < 0·05), but increased on the day of parturition (P < 0·01). Correlation analysis revealed a positive association between hepatic Sirt3 mRNA levels and serum enzyme activity of Mn-SOD (r = 0·46), but a negative association between that and serum NEFA levels (r = −0·41). These data indicate that the decreased hepatic expression of Sirt3 might be one of the reasons that dairy goats undergo oxidative stress after parturition.
Welding was successfully used in the fabrication of low pressure steam turbine rotors for nuclear power plants. In this paper, the local brittle zone of the welded joint in NiCrMoV steel with heavy section was investigated by cross-zone fracture toughness test and the effect of martensite–austenite constituent in the simulated reheated zone of welds with different second peak temperature on toughness was analyzed. The results showed that the crack propagated in unstable manner in the reheated zone of welds where the martensite–austenite constituent promoted the initiation and propagation of the crack. The fine structure of martensite–austenite constituent contained retained austenite, martensite, and martensite–austenite mixture microstructure. The impact toughness deteriorated drastically in the incomplete phase transition zone for the simulated reheated zone of welds related to the formation of mixture microstructure in which large blocky martensite–austenite constituent at prior austenite grain boundaries and inside the grains were distributed in the shape of network.
The musk deer (Moschus berezovskii) is an economically important species from which musk is extracted and used in perfumes and medicines. Cestodes (parasitic flatworms) of the genus Moniezia are important parasites that infect this endangered species and can cause high mortality in young deer. In 1982, Moniezia (S.) sichuanensis sp. nov. was described from a specimen obtained from wild musk deer. The new species was distinct from the other described species of Moniezia by the sawtooth-shaped interproglottidal glands, the thick vagina and the absence of a cirrus spine. In the present study, 12 cestodes collected from musk deer were examined morphologically and confirmed to be M. sichuanensis. Molecular characterization was performed by amplifying and comparing the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and 5.8S rRNA gene (ITS1–5.8S) of ribosomal DNA with available sequences from other Moniezia species. The amplified sequences ranged from 761 to 764 bp and similarity ranged from 98.7–100%, compared to 67.8–92.4% with other Moniezia spp. Construction of a phylogenetic tree using the neighbour-joining method indicated that all 12 ITS1–5.8S sequences formed a single clade, confirming M. sichuanensis as a separate species. This study provides novel molecular insight into M. sichuanensis that could prove useful for future diagnosis and control of monieziasis in musk deer.
Determination of canopy resistance (rc) is necessary for accurate estimating hourly latent heat flux (LET), using the Penman–Monteith (PM) model for tea crop. In this study, a non-linear relationship between rc and climatic resistance (r*) was obtained for tea plants based on micro-meteorological data and LET from the end of 2014 to the beginning of 2016 in southern China. The proposed rc model was integrated to the PM method and compared with measured LET using a Bowen ratio energy balance method. The root mean square error (RMSE) and the index of agreement (d) were calculated for assessing the accuracy of the proposed rc model. RMSE and d values for rc and LET were 167.4 s m−1 and 29.7 W m−2 and 0.93 and 0.99, respectively. As compared to data from a single season, the rc sub-model based on data from different seasons was more reliable for estimating LET of tea field when integrated to the PM model.
The effect of fruit and vegetable intake on breast cancer prognosis is controversial. Thus, a meta-analysis was carried out to explore their associations. A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, OVID, ProQuest and Chinese databases from inception to April 2016. The summary hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI were estimated using a random effects model if substantial heterogeneity existed and using a fixed effects model if not. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses were also performed. In total, twelve studies comprising 41 185 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Comparing the highest with the lowest, the summary HR for all-cause mortality were 1·01 (95 % CI 0·72, 1·42) for fruits and vegetables combined, 0·96 (95 % CI 0·83, 1·12) for total vegetable intake, 0·99 (95 % CI 0·89, 1·11) for cruciferous vegetable intake and 0·88 (95 % CI 0·74, 1·05) for fruit intake; those for breast cancer-specific mortality were 1·05 (95 % CI 0·77, 1·43) for total vegetable intake and 0·94 (95 % CI 0·69, 1·26) for fruit intake; and those for breast cancer recurrence were 0·89 (95 % CI 0·53, 1·50) for total vegetable intake and 0·98 (95 % CI 0·76, 1·26) for cruciferous vegetable intake. This meta-analysis found no significant associations between fruit and vegetable intake and breast cancer prognosis.
Composite materials have been increasingly used in aircraft structures. However, these composite structures are susceptible to damage from external low-velocity impacts. In this paper, an impact identification algorithm is proposed to estimate the impact location and force time history simultaneously. A localisation method based on basis vectors is proposed, and the impact force time history is reconstructed by simplified transfer functions. The basis vector stands for the relationship between the impact location and the sensor signals, and the transfer function shows the relationship of the sensor signal and the force time history. An experiment is conducted on a flat glass fibre-epoxy matrix composite plate to verify the developed algorithm using only four sensors. The soft impactor and hard impactor are two typical impactors for impact events; therefore, the impact experiment is performed by the rubber and the steel impactors, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is feasible for the identification of impact events on plate-like composite structures.
Narrow gap submerged arc welding method accompanied with multilayer and multipass technology was used to manufacture advanced 9Cr and CrMoV dissimilarly welded joint used as a newly developed turbine rotor. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the high cycle fatigue (HCF) behavior of the welded joint at room temperature. Uniaxial-stress controlled HCF tests at stress ratio R = −1 were performed with specimens chipped from the welded joint of mockup and the S–N curve up to 1.0 × 108 cycle lifetime was obtained. It was found that the fracture location transferred from heat affected zone (HAZ) of CrMoV side to weld metal (WM) with decreasing stress amplitude. The microstructure of the welded joint was characterized and microstructure diversity was found to be responsible for the failure locations both in the CrMoV–HAZ and WM. Fracture morphology of failure samples were also investigated by a scanning electron microscope. It is detected that the stress amplitude required to drive the inclusion to be the crack initiation of the CrMoV–HAZ lies behind the transition. With decreasing stress amplitudes, void in the WM more easily tends to be the initiation of a fatigue crack than inclusion.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed an approach to ventilator-associated events (VAE) surveillance. Using these methods, this study was performed to investigate VAE incidences and to test whether VAEs are associated with poorer outcomes in China.
A 4-month, prospective multicenter surveillance study between April and July 2013.
Our study included 15 adult intensive care units (ICUs) of 15 hospitals in China.
Patients admitted to ICUs during the study period
Patients on mechanical ventilation (MV) were monitored for VAEs: ventilator-associated conditions (VACs), infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVACs), and possible or probable ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Patients with and without VACs were compared with regard to duration of MV, ICU length of stay (LOS), overall hospital LOS, and mortality rate.
During the study period, 2,356 of the 5,256 patients admitted to ICUs received MV for 8,438 ventilator days. Of these patients, 636 were on MV >2 days. VACs were identified in 94 cases (4.0%; 11.1 cases per 1,000 ventilator days), including 31 patients with IVACs and 16 with possible VAP but none with probable VAP. Compared with patients without VACs, patients with VACs had longer ICU LOS (by 6.2 days), longer duration on MV (by 7.7 days), and higher hospital mortality rate (50.0% vs 27.3%). The mortality rate attributable to VACs was 11.7%. Compared with those with VACs alone, patients with IVACs had longer duration on MV and increased ICU LOS but no higher mortality rates.
In China, surveillance of VACs and IVACs is able to identify MV patients with poorer outcomes. However, surveillance of possible and probable VAP can be problematic.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(12):1388–1395
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have the ability to self-renew and offer a pathway for genetic engineering of the male germ line. Cryopreservation of SSCs has potential value for the treatment of male infertility, spermatogonial transplantation, and so on. In order to investigate the cryopreservation effects of different cryoprotectants on murine SSCs, 0.2 M of low-density lipoproteins (LDL), trehalose and soybean lecithin were added to the cryoprotective medium, respectively, and the murine SSCs were frozen at −80°C or −196°C. The results indicated that the optimal recovery rates of murine SSCs in the cryoprotective medium supplemented with LDL, trehalose and soybean lecithin were 92.53, 76.35 and 75.48% at −80°C, respectively. Compared with freezing at −196°C, the optimum temperature for improvement of recovery rates of frozen murine SSCs, cryopreservation in three different cryoprotectants at −80°C, were 17.11, 6.68 and 10.44% respectively. The recovery rates of murine SSCs in the cryoprotective medium supplemented with 0.2 M LDL were significantly higher than that of other cryoprotectants (P < 0.05). Moreover, the recovery rates were demonstrated to be greater at −80°C compared with at −196°C (P < 0.05). In conclusion, 0.2 M of LDL could significantly protect murine SSCs at −80°C. In the freezing–thawing process, LDL is responsible for the cryopreservation of murine SSCs because it can form a protective film at the surface of membranes. However, more research is needed to evaluate and understand the precise role of LDL during the freezing–thawing of SSCs.
The present study was conducted to determine the adjuvant effect of arginine in mice immunised with inactivated vaccine. Mice immunised with an inactivated Pasteurella multocida vaccine and fed diets supplemented with 0·2 % (vaccine-0·2 %) or 0·5 % (vaccine-0·5 %) arginine exhibited 100 % protection from a challenge with P. multocida serotype A (CQ2) at a dose of 4·4 × 105 colony-forming units (2LD50; median lethal dose), when compared with mice receiving no arginine supplementation. Meanwhile, antibody titres in the vaccine-0·2 % arginine group were much higher than those in the vaccine-oil adjuvant group before challenge and at 36 h post-infection. Furthermore, immunisation with the inactivated vaccine and dietary supplementation with 0·2 % arginine increased serum levels of glutathione peroxidase, in comparison with immunisation with the inactivated vaccine and an oil adjuvant. Collectively, dietary arginine supplementation confers an immunostimulatory effect in mice immunised with the inactivated P. multocida vaccine. The present results also indicate that optimal supplemental doses of arginine are 0·2–0·5 % in the mouse model.
This study determined the spatial and seasonal density, number of genera, genera composition, maturity index and trophic structure of free-living nematode assemblages in the subtidal waters of the northern Beibu Gulf, South China Sea, and explored whether these five biotic characteristics were related to various environmental variables. Based on the data derived from samples collected seasonally at nine stations, the mean densities of nematodes decreased from alongshore to offshore station in the northern Beibu Gulf. However, the number of nematode genera increased from alongshore to offshore station. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling analysis showed no clear seasonal changes for nematode assemblages in most sampling stations. Higher densities of the genera Elzalia and Tricoma were found in offshore sampling stations, and a higher density of the genus Cheironchus was found in alongshore sampling stations. The mean percentage of each feeding type compared to the total numbers was highest in epigrowth feeders (2A), second highest in non-selective deposit feeders (1B), third highest in predators (2B), and lowest in selective deposit feeders (1A). There were significant negative correlations between nematode density and water depth and temperature; significant positive correlations between the number of nematode genera and water depth and salinity; and significant negative correlation between the maturity index of the nematode assemblage and organic matter. BIOENV analysis indicated that water depth, salinity, pH, median sediment particle size and organic matter were the most correlated combination of environmental variables affecting the nematode assemblages.