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To assess the daily intake of polychlorinated biphenyls not similar to dioxins (NDL-PCB) derived from fish consumption in Spain and compare it with tolerance limits in order to establish a safe threshold so that the nutritional benefits derived from fish consumption may be optimized.
Analysis of NDL-PCB in fish samples and ecological study of the estimated intake of NDL-PCB from fish consumption in different Spanish population groups.
National representative sample of the Spanish population.
The intake of NDL-PCB was estimated in two different scenarios: upper bound (UB) and lower bound (LB). Estimating intake using the average concentration of NDL-PCB found in the fish samples, the intake for ‘other children’ is estimated as: 1·80 (UB) and 5·33 (LB) ng/kg per d at the 50th percentile (P50); 7·39 (UB) and 21·94 (LB) ng/kg per d at the 95th percentile (P95) of fish consumption. Estimated NDL-PCB intake shoots up in the toddler group, reaching values of 30·43 (UB) and 90·37 (LB) ng/kg per d at P95. Estimated intake values are lower than those previously estimated in Europe, something expected since in previous studies intake was estimated through total diet. In adults, our estimated values are 1·59 (UB) and 4·72 (LB) ng/kg per d at P50; 4·95 (UB) and 14·72 (LB) ng/kg per d at P95.
NDL-PCB concentration in fish is under the tolerance limits in most samples. However, daily intake in consumers of large quantities of fish should be monitored and special attention should be given to the youngest age groups due to their special vulnerability and higher exposure.
In 2007, a partnership was initiated between a small-volume paediatric cardiac surgery unit located in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, and a large-volume cardiac surgery unit located in Milan, Italy. The main goal of this partnership was to provide surgical treatment to children with CHD in the Canary Islands.
An operative algorithm for performing surgery in elective, urgent, and emergency cases was adopted by the this joint programme. Demographic and in-hospital variables were collected from the medical records of all the patients who had undergone surgical intervention for CHD from January, 2009 to March, 2013. Data were introduced into the congenital database of the European Congenital Heart Surgeons Association Congenital Database and the database was interrogated.
In total, 65 surgical mission trips were performed during the period of this study. The European Congenital Heart Surgeons Association Congenital Database documented 214 total patients with a mean age at operation of 36.45 months, 316 procedures in total with 198 cardiopulmonary bypass cases, 46 non-cardiopulmonary bypass cases, 26 cardiovascular cases without cardiopulmonary bypass, 22 miscellaneous other types of cases, 16 interventional cardiology cases, six thoracic cases, one non-cardiac, non-thoracic procedure on a cardiac patient with cardiac anaesthesia, and one extracorporeal membrane oxygenation case. The 30-day mortality was 6.07% (13 patients).
A joint programme between a small-volume centre and a large-volume centre may represent a valid and reproducible model for safe paediatric cardiac surgery in the context of a peripheral region.
In species that aggregate for reproduction, the social and fitness costs of movement between groups frequently lead to restricted exchange between breeding areas. We report on four individual humpback whales identified in both the Cape Verde Islands and Guadeloupe; locations separated by an ocean basin and >4000 km. This rate of exchange is rarely encountered between such geographically discrete breeding areas. Two individuals returned to the area where they were originally identified. In contrast, no individuals from the Cape Verde Islands were resighted to the much larger sample from the Dominican Republic, though the migratory distances from the feeding areas are comparable between these areas. The social factors driving the stark difference between groups that is observed here are not clear. Effective conservation requires an understanding of the extent and pattern of movement between population units. The findings presented here suggest that there may well be more than one behaviourally distinct group within the West Indies. More broadly, they argue that considerable caution is warranted in assumptions made regarding the number, boundaries and status of population units based solely on spatial separation or proximity.
The investigation of post-AGB objects (proto-planetary nebulae) is very important from the standpoint of physical and chemical changes occurring during the late stages of stellar evolution. The Toruń catalogue of Galactic post-AGB and related objects is an evolutive catalogue containing astrometric, photometric and spectroscopic data as well as HST images for all known post-AGB objects and candidates in our Galaxy. This free-access catalogue can serve as an ideal tool to study different groups of post-AGB objects, especially due to the fact that all information is gathered in one place. The second release of our catalogue introduces a simple classification scheme of post-AGB objects and includes a significant number of new objects, photometric data, spectra and images. Here, using objects from the catalogue we consider the problem of the termination of the AGB phase.
To evaluate the rate of hospitalization for acute respiratory tract infection in children less than 24 months with haemodynamically significant congenital cardiac disease, and to describe associated risk factors, preventive measures, aetiology, and clinical course.
Materials and methods
We followed 760 subjects from October 2004 through April 2005 in an epidemiological, multicentric, observational, follow-up, prospective study involving 53 Spanish hospitals.
Of our cohort, 79 patients (10.4%, 95% CI: 8.2%–12.6%) required a total of 105 admissions to hospital related to respiratory infections. The incidence rate was 21.4 new admissions per 1000 patients-months. Significant associated risk factors for hospitalization included, with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals shown in parentheses: 22q11 deletion (8.2, 2.5–26.3), weight below the 10th centile (5.2, 1.6–17.4), previous respiratory disease (4.5, 2.3–8.6), incomplete immunoprophylaxis against respiratory syncytial virus (2.2, 1.2–3.9), trisomy 21 (2.1, 1.1–4.2), cardiopulmonary bypass (2.0, 1.1–3.4), and siblings aged less than 11 years old (1.7, 1.1–2.9). Bronchiolitis (51.4%), upper respiratory tract infections (25.7%), and pneumonia (20%) were the main diagnoses. An infectious agent was found in 37 cases (35.2%): respiratory syncytial virus in 25, Streptococcus pneumoniae in 5, and Haemophilus influenzae in 4. The odds ratio for hospitalization due to infection by the respiratory syncytial virus increases by 3.05 (95% CI: 2.14 to 4.35) in patients with incomplete prophylaxis. The median length of hospitalization was 7 days. In 18 patients (17.1%), the clinical course of respiratory infection was complicated and 2 died.
Hospital admissions for respiratory infection in young children with haemodynamically significant congenital cardiac disease are mainly associated with non-cardiac conditions, which may be genetic, malnutrition, or respiratory, and to cardiopulmonary bypass. Respiratory syncytial virus was the most commonly identified infectious agent. Incomplete immunoprophylaxis against the virus increased the risk of hospitalization.
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