Avian predators may represent an important selective pressure favouring the evolution of aposematic colouration in millipedes that present chemical defences. However, the role of their warning colouration in predator avoidance remains poorly explored under field conditions, especially in Neotropical forests. Thus, to evaluate the hypothesis of the predator avoidance, we conducted a factorial experiment utilizing artificial replicas of millipedes constructed from plasticine and placed in the natural habitat of Odontopeltis aleijadinho (Polydesmida, Chelodesmidae), an Atlantic Forest endemic aposematic millipede. We assessed patterns of attack to aposematic and non-aposematic replicas applied with repugnant fluid extracted from living millipedes and two control treatments, distributed as a total of 300 replicas exposed for 48 h on the forest floor. The average percentage of replicas attacked was nearly 10-fold higher on those non-aposematic control replicas (13.3% ± 3.3%) than on aposematic replicas (1.3% ± 0.9%). In 24 replicas attacked by avian predators, no effect of millipede repugnant fluid was found, but the effect of colouration pattern was statistically significant. Our data support the hypothesis that a warning colouration pattern involving yellow spots symmetrically distributed along the millipede body can mediate avian predator avoidance.