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In the field of assisted reproductive technology, vitrification is becoming an increasingly popular method of cryopreserving cells, tissues and even entire organs. The possibility that water might be vitrified was first proposed by Brayley in the mid 1800s, but the idea of cryopreservation by vitrification was apparently not introduced until Stiles observed, that protoplasm is likely, at very high cooling rates, to form "a finely crystalline or even amorphous mass" that "in thawing, might be expected to give again the original system without change". Vitrification does not inherently rely upon very high rates of cooling because ice nucleation and growth rates go down as solute concentration goes up. Vitrification can be seen as the means by which an aqueous solution remains within the bounds of thermodynamic law. The negative effects of vitrification solutions (VSs) can arise, not only from true biochemical toxicity but also from osmotic effects.
The rationale behind intrauterine insemination (IUI) with partner sperm is bypassing the cervical-mucus barrier and increasing the number of motile spermatozoa with a high proportion of normal forms at the site of fertilization. This chapter examines the value and position of homologous intrauterine insemination in an assisted reproductive technology (ART) program. Some of the factors influencing IUI success include site of insemination, number of inseminations, exact timing of IUI, sperm preparation methods and fallopian tube sperm perfusion. Artificial inseminations can be done intravaginally, intracervically (ICI), pericervically using a cap, intrauterine (IUI), transcervical intrafallopian (IFI) or directly intraperitoneal (IPI). Most studies refer to IUI, which seems to be an easy and better way of treatment. IUI should be promoted as the best first-line treatment in most cases of subfertility provided at least one tube is patent and an IMC after sperm preparation of more than 1 million can be obtained.
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