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The present review aimed to examine the association of eating frequency with body weight or body composition in adults of both sexes.
PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched. PRISMA and MOOSE protocols were followed. Observational studies published up to August 2016 were included. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed with the Downs and Black checklist.
A systematic review of the literature.
Adults (n 136 052); the majority of studies were developed in the USA and Europe.
Thirty-one articles were included in the review: two prospective and twenty-nine cross-sectional studies. Thirteen per cent of the studies received quality scores above 80 %. The assessment of eating frequency and body composition or body weight varied widely across the studies. Potential confounders were included in 73 % of the studies. Fourteen studies reported an inverse association between eating frequency and body weight or body composition, and seven studies found a positive association. The majority of studies applied multiple analyses adjusted for potential confounders, such as sex, age, education, income, smoking, physical activity and alcohol intake. Six studies took into account under-reporting of eating frequency and/or energy intake in the analysis, and one investigated the mediation effect of energy intake.
There is not sufficient evidence confirming the association between eating frequency and body weight or body composition when misreporting bias is taken into account. However, in men, a potential protective effect of high eating frequency was observed on BMI and visceral obesity.
To analyse the trends and factors associated with anaemia in 6- to 59-month-old children in Northeast Brazil.
Cross-sectional study assessed information from the second and third Pernambuco State Health and Nutrition Surveys carried out in 1997 and 2006. A multiple regression analysis was performed from a conceptual model addressing biological and socio-economic factors, housing and sanitation conditions, maternal factors, health care and nutrition, consumption, morbidity and nutritional status. Poisson's regression with robust variance was used.
A total of 777 and 993 children, respectively, in the second and third Pernambuco State Health and Nutrition Surveys.
The prevalence of anaemia (Hb < 11 g/dl) decreased by 19·3 % (40·9 % down to 33·0 %) between surveys. Maternal education level (less than 8 years in school), households ranked in the lowest environmental index tertile and children between 6 and 23 months of age were the variables common to the final models in the surveys of 1997 and 2006. Elements like living in rural areas, household income less than two minimum official wages and low birth weight were still present in the final model of the 1997 survey. Households ranked in the lowest economic index tertile were associated with anaemia in the model of the 2006 survey.
The study results are quite encouraging from the perspective of reducing the prevalence of anaemia. Maternal education level, environmental conditions and child age were determinant factors in both surveys, and economic factors were determinant in 2006.
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