Early-life chronic exposure to environmental contaminants, such as bisphenol-A, particulate matter air pollution, organophosphorus pesticides, and pharmaceutical drugs, among others, may affect central tissues, such as the hypothalamus, and peripheral tissues, such as the endocrine pancreas, causing inflammation and apoptosis with severe implications to the metabolism. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept articulates events in developmental phases of life, such as intrauterine, lactation, and adolescence, to later-life metabolism and health. These developmental phases are more susceptible to environmental changes, such as those caused by environmental contaminants, which may predispose individuals to obesity, metabolic syndrome, and chronic noncommunicable diseases later in life. Alterations in the epigenome are explored as an underlying mechanism to the programming effects on metabolism, as the expression of key genes related with central and peripheral metabolic functions may be altered in response to environmental disturbances. Studies show that environmental contaminants may affect gene expressions in mammals, especially when exposed to during the developmental phases of life, leading to metabolic disorders in adulthood. In this review, we discuss the current obesity epidemics, the DOHaD concept, pollutants’ toxicology, environmental control, and the role of environmental contaminants in the central and peripheral programming of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Improving environmental monitoring may directly affect the quality of life of the population and help protect the future generations from metabolic diseases.