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Collision with power lines is a major cause of mortality for many bird species. Understanding the biotic and abiotic factors that increase collision risk is therefore important for implementing mitigation measures to minimize mortality, such as power line rerouting or wire marking. Here, we used collision events registered during 2003–2015 along 280 km of transmission power lines in southern Portugal to analyse spatio-temporal patterns and collision risk factors in two sympatric, threatened, and collision-prone species: the great bustard Otis tarda and the little bustard Tetrax tetrax. The occurrence of collisions was not uniform across space and time, and variations could be explained by the species' ecological requirements, distribution patterns and behaviour. Although both species fly considerable distances between areas of suitable habitat, collisions were far more likely in power line sections with > 20% (for the little bustard) or > 50% (for the great bustard) of open farmland habitat in the surroundings. Power line configuration was also important: taller pylons and those with a higher number of wire levels posed a higher risk for both species. Wire marking had a small but significant effect for the little bustard, reducing collisions risk. There was, however, no similar effect for the great bustard, possibly a result of limited data. Mitigation measures should be implemented to prevent bustard collisions, including adequate route planning, ideally avoiding areas with > 20% of open habitat. Line configuration and wire marking are particularly important where such localities cannot be avoided and power lines cross areas with a high proportion of bustard habitat, including outside protected areas.
We investigated the efficiency of the autoregressive repeatability model (AR) for genetic evaluation of longitudinal reproductive traits in Portuguese Holstein cattle and compared the results with those from the conventional repeatability model (REP). The data set comprised records taken during the first four calving orders, corresponding to a total of 416, 766, 872 and 766 thousand records for interval between calving to first service, days open, calving interval and daughter pregnancy rate, respectively. Both models included fixed (month and age classes associated to each calving order) and random (herd-year-season, animal and permanent environmental) effects. For AR model, a first-order autoregressive (co)variance structure was fitted for the herd-year-season and permanent environmental effects. The AR outperformed the REP model, with lower Akaike Information Criteria, lower Mean Square Error and Akaike Weights close to unity. Rank correlations between estimated breeding values (EBV) with AR and REP models ranged from 0.95 to 0.97 for all studied reproductive traits, when the total bulls were considered. When considering only the top-100 selected bulls, the rank correlation ranged from 0.72 to 0.88. These results indicate that the re-ranking observed at the top level will provide more opportunities for selecting the best bulls. The EBV reliabilities provided by AR model was larger for all traits, but the magnitudes of the annual genetic progress were similar between two models. Overall, the proposed AR model was suitable for genetic evaluations of longitudinal reproductive traits in dairy cattle, outperforming the REP model.
The work described in this Research Communication concerns the production of Dulce de leche (DL), that is a traditional product from South America obtained by concentration. Maillard reaction (MR) products are mainly responsible for the formation of color and flavor in this product. Lactose-hydrolyzed products have been developed to supply consumer demand, but this hydrolysis may affect the flavor, color, taste, texture and even some nutritional aspects of the product. We studied the influence of different levels of lactose-hydrolysis, sucrose addition and initial pH on the development of MR, appraised by the determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A process simulator with multi-monitoring system was used to produce 15 DL. Box-Behnken 33 experimental design was applied for the three factors: pH, lactose-hydrolysis level and sucrose concentration. Lipids, protein, ashes, carbohydrates, water activity, dissolved solids, colorimetric analysis and HMF (free and total) are among the physicochemical attributes and MR indicators analyzed in this work. The products showed significant differences in composition but all the values were in agreement with the literature. Moreover, higher levels of lactose hydrolysis and higher pH presented a direct relation with the development of MR, observed by an increase in coloration (lower luminosity) and more formation of HMF, both free and total. The present study expands the knowledge about DL spread made of lactose-hydrolyzed milk, allowing the food industries to produce a lactose free DL with nutritional and sensory characteristics closer to the traditional product.
Cognitive tests of inhibitory control show variable results for the differential diagnosis between behavioural variant of Frontotemporal Dementia (bvFTD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We compared the diagnostic accuracies of tests of inhibitory control and of a behavioural questionnaire, to distinguish bvFTD from AD.
Three groups of participants were enrolled: 27 bvFTD patients, 25 AD patients, and 24 healthy controls. Groups were matched for gender, education, and socio-economic level. Participants underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment of inhibitory control, including Hayling Test, Stroop, the Five Digits Test (FDT) and the Delay Discounting Task (DDT). Caregivers completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11th version (BIS-11).
bvFTD and AD groups showed no difference in the tasks of inhibitory control, while the caregiver questionnaire revealed that bvFTD patients were significantly more impulsive (BIS-11: bvFTD 76.1+9.5, AD 62.9+13, p < .001).
Neuropsychological tests of inhibitory control failed to distinguish bvFTD from AD. On the contrary, impulsivity caregiver-completed questionnaire provided good distinction between bvFTD and AD. These results highlight the current limits of cognitive measures of inhibitory control for the differential diagnosis between bvFTD and AD, whereas questionnaire information appears more reliable and in line with clinical diagnostics.
To evaluate differences in food consumption of Brazilian adults according to the presence of children and adolescents in the household.
Averages of two non-consecutive days of food records from the first Brazilian National Dietary Survey were analysed and classified into eighteen food groups according to nutritional characteristics and use in diet. We compared the mean percentage contribution to total daily energy intake of each food group according to three groups of household composition: adults living alone or with other adults (32·7 %), adults living with children (35·6 %) and adults living with adolescents (31·7 %).
Brazilian nationwide survey, 2008–2009.
Adults aged 20–59 years (n 6312; 52·1 % female).
Women living alone or with other adults had higher consumption of vegetables, milk and other drinks, and lower consumption of beans and rice, compared with those living with children or adolescents. Men living alone or with other adults had higher consumption of sweets & desserts and vegetables, and lower consumption of beans, compared with those living with children or adolescents. According to household income, adults in the highest tertile who lived with children or adolescents presented a mixed consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods, whereas their counterparts in the first income tertile presented a marked consumption of foods considered traditional of the Brazilian population.
There are differences in food consumption based on the presence of children and adolescents in the household, with greater variation according to gender and household income.
Invasive winter annual grass infestations on rangeland accumulate large quantities of litter on the soil surface, as plants senesce yearly and decompose slowly. It has been speculated that winter annual grass litter can adsorb soil-active herbicides and reduce overall performance. Three experiments were conducted from 2017 to 2018 at the Colorado State University Weed Research Laboratory to evaluate interception and subsequent desorption of herbicides applied to litter from three invasive winter annual grass species with simulated rainfall. Imazapic, rimsulfuron, and indaziflam were applied to medusahead [Taeniatherum caput-medusae (L.) Nevski], ventenata [Ventenata dubia (Leers) Coss.], and downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) litter at two amounts (equivalent to 1,300 and 2,600 kg ha−1). Rainfall was simulated at 3, 6, 12, and 24 mm at 0, 1, and 7 d after herbicide application. Herbicide concentration from the collected rainfall was measured using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. At 2,600 kg ha−1, B. tectorum herbicide interception was 84.3%, while V. dubia and T. caput-medusae averaged 76% herbicide interception. There were no differences in desorption among the three litter types. Simulated rainfall at 0 d after application recovered 100% of the intercepted rimsulfuron and imazapic from B. tectorum litter, while recovery decreased to 65% with rainfall at 1 or 7 d after application. Only 54% of indaziflam could be recovered at 0 d, and recovery decreased to 33% when rainfall was applied at 1 or 7 d after application. Applying soil-active herbicides before forecasted rain or tank mixing with a POST herbicide to provide initial control could potentially increase the amount of herbicide reaching the soil and provide more consistent invasive winter annual grass control.
In Antarctica, the genus Bartramia has been restricted to a single polymorphic species, B. patens. Its status as a separate species or a subspecies of the Northern Hemisphere B. ithyphylla was debated. In the present paper, we combine analyses of chloroplast (trnS–rps4–trnT–trnL–trnF region) and nuclear ITS sequences with a reinvestigation of morphological characteristics to infer the identity of Antarctic Bartramia. Phylogenetic and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) species delimitation analyses indicate that the species diversity of Bartramia in Antarctica has been underestimated, since two species were identified, both belonging to Bartramia sect. Pyridium. Of these, B. subsymmetrica is a new record of the species for Antarctica, as it has previously only been recorded from Livingston Island, South Shetlands. The other species is B. patens, which is separated from B. ithyphylla by newly inferred morphological characteristics and is a sister species to the latter in the molecular phylogenetic analyses. Consequently, we consider B. ithyphylla to be a Northern Hemisphere instead of a bipolar species. The suggested conspecificity of both taxa into one species in the ABGD analysis is considered to result from overlumping by this species delimitation method. The delimitation of the three species of section Bartramia (B. halleriana, B. mossmaniana and B. pomiformis) and the circumscription of the genus Bartramia are discussed.
This study investigated the effects of a maternal dyslipidaemic (DLP) diet on lipid metabolism, microbial counts in faeces and hepatic and intestinal morphology in rat offspring with respect to sex during different phases of life. Wistar rats (dams) were fed a control (CTL) or DLP during gestation and lactation. After weaning, CTL and DLP offspring were fed a standard diet. The effects of a maternal DLP on body composition, biochemical parameters, faecal microbiota and intestinal and hepatic histomorphometric characteristics in rat offspring were evaluated at 30 and 90 d of age. The DLP diet during gestation and lactation caused lower birth weight and a greater weight gain percentage at the end of the 90-d period in both male and female offspring. Female pups from DLP dams had higher liver fat levels compared with CTL (P≤0·001) at 90 d of age. Males from DLP dams had greater visceral fat weight and lower Lactobacillus spp. faecal counts at 90 d of age (P≤0·001) as well as lower faecal fat excretion (P≤0·05) and Bacteroides spp. faecal counts (P≤0·001) at 30 d of age when compared with pups from CTL dams. However, both dams and DLP pups showed damage to intestinal villi. A maternal DLP alters intestinal function and lipid metabolism in a sex-specific manner and is a potential predisposing factor for health complications in offspring from the juvenile period to the adult period.
This Research Paper addresses the hypothesis that the type of dulce de leche formula affects formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during production and storage. Milk and sweetened condensed milk are products in which the Maillard reaction (MR) defines important characteristics such as colour and taste. There are few studies on the effects of pH, time, concentration, and sugar type on the formation of HMF or other MR markers in DL. Four formulas (varying in the addition of sodium bicarbonate and the type of sugar) were analysed for moisture, lipid, protein, ash, carbohydrate, water activity (Aw), and soluble solids. We found low variability in physicochemical and compositional attributes, but an elevation of HMF indices throughout the manufacturing. We determined that the addition of glucose and the use of relatively high concentrations of sodium bicarbonate caused these HMF indicator increases. These results inform DL research and production by the dairy industries and the scientific community, and highlight the importance of control in manufacturing.
Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for humans, yet its dietary intake is low, mostly due to the low bioavailability in soils and therefore in edible plant tissues. To overcome Se deficiency, the breeding approach (i.e., genetic biofortification), namely in rice, is largely dependent on available Se pools. To ensure the success of genetic biofortification with Se, agronomic biofortification can be accomplished through foliar Se application. Considering this background, the main hypothesis of this work was centered in the foliar application of Se to attain agronomic biofortification of rice crops. This study also aimed to assess the full potential for increasing grain Se concentrations during rice filling, as well as the types of nutrients deposition. An experimental design applying two foliar fertilizers (sodium selenite and sodium selenate) was developed. As test systems, four rice genotypes (Ariete, Albatros, OP1105 and OP1109) were used and the kinetics of micro- and macro-nutrients accumulation and deposition were assessed. Biofortification was performed in field trials for two years with foliar fertilization ranging between 0 and 300 g Se ha−1. At the end of the plant cycle, selenite applications triggered 427- to 884-fold increases in grain Se concentrations among rice genotypes (Albatros > OP1105 > OP1109 > Ariete). The application of selenate also prompted 128- to 347-fold increases in grain Se concentrations in rice crops (Albatros > OP1105 > Ariete > OP1109). Regardless of the foliar fertilizer applied, Se deposition among genotypes occurred throughout the grain without relevant inhibitory effects on yields. In each genotype, micro and macronutrients varied among crop tissues.
The aim of this study was to describe the effect of temperature on the fertilization, early developmental stages, and survival rate of two Neotropical catfishes Pimelodus maculatus and Pseudopimelodus mangurus. After fertilization, the eggs were incubated at 22°C, 26°C, and 30°C, which resulted in fertilization rates of 96.95 ± 1.79%, 98.74 ± 0.76%, and 98.44 ± 0.19% for P. maculatus and 96.10 ± 1.58%, 98.00 ± 0.63%, and 94.60 ± 2.09% for P. mangurus, respectively. For P. maculatus, hatching occurred after 22 h 30 min post-fertilization at 22°C, 16 h 30 min at 26°C, and 11 h 20 min at 30°C, and the hatching rates were 43.87 ± 7,46%, 57.57 ± 17.49%, and 53.63 ± 16.27%, respectively. For P. mangurus, hatching occurred after 28 h 30 min post-fertilization at 22°C and 17 h 30 min at 26°C with respective hatching rates of 45.4 ± 21.02% and 68.1 ± 12.67%. For this species, all embryos incubated at 30°C died before hatching. Additionally, for P. maculatus, the larvae from the lower (22°C) and higher temperatures (30°C) presented increased abnormality rates, as observed in the head, tail and yolk regions. The lowest abnormality rate was detected at 26°C, which was considered the optimal incubation temperature for both species. The developed protocol enables the manipulation of embryonic development, which is important for the application of reproductive biotechniques, including chimerism and chromosome-set manipulation. The data obtained here are also important for the surrogate propagation of this species as P. mangurus was recently categorized as an endangered fish species.
Recent evidence has shown that most tropical species are declining as a result of global change. Under this scenario, the prevalence of tolerant species to disturbances has driven many biological communities towards biotic homogenization (BH). However, the mechanisms that drive communities towards BH are not yet thoroughly understood. We tested effects of recurring wildfires on woody species richness and composition in six seasonally flooded Amazonian forests and whether these fires reduce species composition (i.e., taxonomic homogenization) over short periods of time. Our results show that these forests are undergoing taxonomic homogenization in response to recurring fire events. Species richness decreased as a result of local extinctions and floristic similarity increased among forest communities. Fire was selecting tolerant (‘winner’) species and eliminating the more sensitive (‘loser’) species. BH leads to biodiversity erosion, which can deeply alter ecosystem processes such as productivity, nutrient cycling and decomposition, resulting in important consequences for conservation.
This study assessed the effects of diet supplementation with industrial processing by-products of acerola (Malpighia emarginata D.C.), cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) and guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruit on the intestinal health and lipid metabolism of female Wistar rats with diet-induced dyslipidaemia. Female rats were randomly divided into five groups: healthy control, dyslipidaemic control and dyslipidaemic experimental receiving acerola, cashew or guava processing by-products. Fruit processing by-products were administered (400 mg/kg body weight) via orogastric administration for 28 consecutive days. Acerola, cashew and guava by-products caused body weight reduction (3·42, 3·08 and 5·20 %, respectively) in dyslipidaemic female rats. Dyslipidaemic female rats receiving fruit by-products, especially from acerola, presented decreased faecal pH, visceral fat, liver fat and serum lipid levels, as well as increased faecal moisture, faecal fat excretion, faecal Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. counts and amounts of organic acids in faeces. Administration of the tested fruit processing by-products protected colon and liver from tissue damage (e.g. destruction of liver and colon cells and increased fat deposition in hepatocytes) induced by dyslipidaemic diet. Dietary fibres and phenolic compounds in tested fruit by-products may be associated with these positive effects. The industrial fruit processing by-products studied, mainly from acerola, exert functional properties that could enable their use to protect the harmful effects on intestinal health and lipid metabolism caused by dyslipidaemic diet.
The use of long-acting insulin analogues have been reported in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who exhibit important oscillations of their daily blood glucose, although the therapeutic benefits are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the insulin analogue glargine compared detemir to support health decision-making.
We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies (cohort and registry), available in the MEDLINE (Pubmed), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS), EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases (accessed August 2017), including research in the electronic journal Diabetes Care and gray literature. Several combinations of terms were used, including disease terms, interventions and type of study. The results evaluated were: glycated hemoglobin; weight gain; occurrence of severe hypoglycemia; total insulin dose; and, fasting capillary glycemia. Methodological quality was assessed using the Newcastle scale. The meta-analyses were performed in Review Manager® 5.2 software using a random effects model. Protocol number CRD42017054925 (International Prospective Register of Ongoing Systematic Reviews).
A total of 705 publications, eight cohort studies were included. The quality of included studies was classified as high. In the meta-analysis, the results for episodes of severe hypoglycemia (p = 0.002), measurements of fasting capillary glycemia (p = 0.01), and weight gain (p = 0.001) were favorable for detemir. The glycated hemoglobin endpoint (p = 0.49, heterogeneity = 89 percent) revealed high heterogeneity and no statistically significant difference between groups, showing no difference between the interventions for glycemic control.
Although some results are favorable to detemir, it was not possible to identify significant differences in effectiveness and safety between the two analogues evaluated, requiring new long term studies and better quality of methodological studies.
Quality of life (QoL) is an important health measure and is widely used to assess the difference between treatments for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) since the desirable glycemic control and the minimization of episodes of hypoglycemia are fundamental aspects for a better QoL. This study aims to identify the factors associated with QoL in patients with T1DM.
A cross-sectional study (approved by ethics committee) was carried out in the state of Minas Gerais with 401 T1DM patients who used insulin glargine (GLA) selected in March 2017, and 179 patients who used insulin-neutral protamine (NPH) selected between January and February 2014, and both groups were treated by Brazilian National Health System (SUS). A questionnaire with three blocks was used: A) sociodemographic data; B) clinical data and access to the service; and C) QoL by Euroqol (EQ-5D-3L). We used multiple linear regression model by the forward stepwise method to access the correlation between the utilities of the EQ-5D-3L and all the explanatory variables (blocks A and B). We adopted the significance level and confidence interval of 95 percent (95% CI).
Of the 580 patients evaluated, 54 percent were women, 47 percent were in the age group between 18–40 years, 53 percent reported to be non-black. The EQ-5D-3L analysis showed patients treated with insulin analogue GLA had an average utility of 0.849 and those treated with NPH insulin 0.722 (p < 0.000). Individuals young, very good/good health self-perception, having not been bedridden in the last 15 days, zero to three medical appointments in the last year, no hospitalization in the last year, regular physical activity in the last 15 days to practice physical exercise, having between zero and three comorbidities and no severe hypoglycemia in the last 30 days were explained 41.3 percent of QoL. The type of insulin therapy, GLA or NPH, did not enter into the final multiple regression model.
The findings of this study pointed to a lack of correlation between insulin therapy and QoL of patients with T1DM. Sociodemographic and clinical factors were more important to explain the QoL of diabetics. In addition, the evidence pointed to the importance of episodes of hypoglycemia for Qol. Of the 191 episodes of hypoglycemia (non-severe and severe) reported, 66 percent were from patients treated with GLA.
The present study aims to assess the environmental quality of six estuaries in north-eastern Brazil, using biochemical composition and quantity of organic matter in tropical sediments. Samples were collected monthly during spring low tide from August 2011 to July 2012, in the mid-littoral. Concentrations of organic matter and its biochemical composition reflected the degree of anthropogenic pressure. Although total concentrations of proteins and carbohydrates were similar among estuaries with contrasting levels of anthropogenic pressure, the protein to carbohydrates (PRT : CHO) ratio effectively reflected the trophic state of these areas. PRT : CHO ratios >1 were observed in all studied areas suggesting eutrophic conditions or an initial stage of eutrophication in all of them. Low Chl-a/Phaeo ratios may be associated with the level of eutrophication of each area, however it may also reflect the natural productivity or the presence of mangrove debris. These results were compared with those obtained in previous environmental assessments of the same estuarine areas using the AZTI Marine Biotic Index and monitoring reports showing good agreement. The present study confirmed for the first time in tropical estuarine areas that the biochemical approach can be successfully used to assess the trophic state of the benthic compartment.
In 2015 10 Iberian lynxes Lynx pardinus were released in south-eastern Portugal, within the framework of a Spanish–Portuguese reintroduction project. We examined each individual's use of space and social interactions during the first year after their release. Lynxes were selected for reintroduction according to behavioural, genetic and health criteria and fitted with collars with VHF and global positioning systems. Both males and females went through an exploratory phase that lasted 65–105 days. The lynxes did not exhibit any movement directionality from the release site during the exploratory period. During August–December 2015 a stable nucleus comprising seven individuals (four males, three females) was established south-west of the release enclosure. Although the males had a slightly larger mean home range (11.18 ± SE 1.36 km2) than females (9.87 ± SE 8.71 km2), the difference was not significant. The knowledge obtained during the first year of the lynx reintroduction project in Portugal is critical to support the future of this reintroduction strategy. Our results suggest that once the soft release technique is no longer possible because of logistical constraints on the construction of more enclosures, new individuals should be released in unoccupied areas surrounded by occupied territories. This will promote strong social ties to the resident population and prevent lynx dispersal.
The Little Bustard Tetrax tetrax is a Near Threatened grassland bird that is fully migratory within its eastern population, wintering in large numbers across the south Caucasus and northern parts of Iran. The species’ habitat selection has been comprehensively studied in its western European range, but very limited information is available for its eastern population. Surveys carried out between 2010 and 2015 show a considerable population increase and probable range expansion in the region. We modelled the suitability of potential winter habitat for the species and found that distance to country border, land cover and altitude were the most important variables in predicting habitat suitability. There is still considerable hunting pressure in Iran and distance to border is likely to be related to strict hunting prohibition along the border belt imposed for military purposes. This represents an opportunity for the conservation of the species, where management efforts should aim at ensuring the maintenance of suitable land cover.
To describe trends in the epidemiology of healthcare-associated Infections (HAIs) in pediatric/neonatal intensive care units (ICUs) and to evaluate risk factors and impact of multidrug resistance in children admitted to ICUs.
Multicenter, retrospective, cohort study with a nested case-control study conducted from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2014.
Three tertiary care pediatric hospitals in Italy and Brazil with a total of 103 ICU beds.
Inclusion criteria were admission to ICU during the study period, age at onset less than 18 years, and microbiologically confirmed HAI.
A total of 538 HAIs in 454 children were included; 93.3% of patients had comorbidities. Bloodstream infections were the leading pattern (45.4%). The cumulative incidence of HAI was 3.6/100 ICU admissions and the crude 30-day fatality rate was 5.7/1,000 admissions. The most frequently isolated pathogens were Enterobacteriaceae, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Forty-four percent of isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR). Two multivariate logistic regressions were performed. Factors independently associated with an MDR-HAI were country, previous antibiotics, transplantation, major surgery, and colonization by an MDR strain. Factors independently associated with 30-day case fatality were country, previous transplantation, fungal infection, bloodstream infection, lower respiratory tract infection, and infection caused by MDR strains.
Infection control and prevention can limit the spread of MDR strains and improve outcomes. Targeted surveillance programs collecting neonatal and pediatric HAI/bloodstream infection data and outcomes would allow global benchmarking. The next step is to identify methods to monitor key HAIs and integrate these into affordable intervention programs.