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To derive dietary patterns using principal components analysis from separate FFQ completed by mothers and their teenagers and to assess associations with nutrient intakes and sociodemographic variables.
Two distinct FFQ were completed by 13-year-olds and their mothers, with some overlap in the foods covered. A combined data set was obtained.
Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), Bristol, UK.
Teenagers (n 5334) with adequate dietary data.
Four patterns were obtained using principal components analysis: a ‘Traditional/health-conscious’ pattern, a ‘Processed’ pattern, a ‘Snacks/sugared drinks’ pattern and a ‘Vegetarian’ pattern. The ‘Traditional/health-conscious’ pattern was the most nutrient-rich, having high positive correlations with many nutrients. The ‘Processed’ and ‘Snacks/sugared drinks’ patterns showed little association with important nutrients but were positively associated with energy, fats and sugars. There were clear gender and sociodemographic differences across the patterns. Lower scores were seen on the ‘Traditional/health conscious’ and ‘Vegetarian’ patterns in males and in those with younger and less educated mothers. Higher scores were seen on the ‘Traditional/health-conscious’ and ‘Vegetarian’ patterns in girls and in those whose mothers had higher levels of education.
It is important to establish healthy eating patterns by the teenage years. However, this is a time when it is difficult to accurately establish dietary intake from a single source, since teenagers consume increasing amounts of foods outside the home. Further dietary pattern studies should focus on teenagers and the source of dietary data collection merits consideration.
In 2008, avian bornaviruses (ABV) were identified as the cause of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). PDD is a significant condition of captive parrots first identified in the late 1970s. ABV infection has subsequently been shown to be widespread in wild waterfowl across the United States and Canada where the virus infects 10–20% of some populations of ducks, geese and swans. In most cases birds appear to be healthy and unaffected by the presence of the virus; however, infection can also result in severe non-suppurative encephalitis and lesions similar to those seen in parrots with PDD. ABVs are genetically diverse with seven identified genotypes in parrots and one in canaries. A unique goose genotype (ABV-CG) predominates in waterfowl in Canada and the northern United States. ABV appears to be endemic in North American waterfowl, in comparison to what appears to be an emerging disease in parrots. It is not known whether ABV can spread between waterfowl and parrots. The discovery of ABV infection in North American waterfowl suggests that European waterfowl should be evaluated for the presence of ABV, and also as a possible reservoir species for Borna disease virus (BDV), a related neurotropic virus affecting horses and sheep in central Europe. Although investigations have suggested that BDV is likely derived from a wildlife reservoir, for which the shrew and water vole are currently prime candidates, we suggest that the existence of other mammalian and avian reservoirs should not be discounted.
Little is known about changes in dietary patterns over time. The present study aims to derive dietary patterns using cluster analysis at three ages in children and track these patterns over time. In all, 3 d diet diaries were completed for children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children at 7, 10 and 13 years. Children were grouped based on the similarities between average weight consumed (g/d) of sixty-two food groups using k-means cluster analysis. A total of four clusters were obtained at each age, with very similar patterns being described at each time point: Processed (high consumption of processed foods, chips and soft drinks), Healthy (high consumption of high-fibre bread, fruit, vegetables and water), Traditional (high consumption of meat, potatoes and vegetables) and Packed Lunch (high consumption of white bread, sandwich fillings and snacks). The number of children remaining in the same cluster at different ages was reasonably high: 50 and 43 % of children in the Healthy and Processed clusters, respectively, at age 7 years were in the same clusters at age 13 years. Maternal education was the strongest predictor of remaining in the Healthy cluster at each time point – children whose mothers had the highest level of education were nine times more likely to remain in that cluster compared to those with the lowest. Cluster analysis provides a simple way of examining changes in dietary patterns over time, and similar underlying patterns of diet at two ages during late childhood, that persisted through to early adolescence.
Principal components analysis (PCA) is a popular method for deriving dietary patterns. A number of decisions must be made throughout the analytic process, including how to quantify the input variables of the PCA. The present study aims to compare the effect of using different input variables on the patterns extracted using PCA on 3-d diet diary data collected from 7473 children, aged 10 years, in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Four options were examined: weight consumed of each food group (g/d), energy-adjusted weight, percentage contribution to energy of each food group and binary intake (consumed/not consumed). Four separate PCA were performed, one for each intake measurement. Three or four dietary patterns were obtained from each analysis, with at least one component that described ‘more healthy’ and ‘less healthy’ diets and one component that described a diet with high consumption of meat, potatoes and vegetables. There were no obvious differences between the patterns derived using percentage energy as a measurement and adjusting weight for total energy intake, compared to those derived using gram weights. Using binary input variables yielded a component that loaded positively on reduced fat and reduced sugar foods. The present results suggest that food intakes quantified by gram weights or as binary variables both resulted in meaningful dietary patterns and each method has distinct advantages: weight takes into account the amount of each food consumed and binary intake appears to describe general food preferences, which are potentially easier to modify and useful in public health settings.
The need to improve the response of primary care in terms of identification of people with undiagnosed dementia has long been recognised. The role of Primary Care Liaison was identified as a possible solution. An in-depth consultation was undertaken to identify professional competencies required in executing such a role.
Comprehensive literature and policy reviews were conducted to establish draft competencies or different options/combinations of competencies and competency levels. Consultations with a wide range of professional stakeholders (n = 23) and over 70 users and carers were conducted through focus groups, electronic document circulation and telephone interviews. An Equality Impact Assessment was conducted concurrent to the consultation.
The literature demonstrated a clear need both to improve the rate of diagnosis for people with dementia and to improve the way in which the diagnosis is made. The stakeholder consultation repeatedly affirmed that without a diagnosis the person with dementia and their caregivers did not get access to the appropriate services, and validated the need for a role that would be able to improve a system that would deliver an early and ‘timely’ diagnosis. Competencies, based on the literature and policy documents, were developed and debated through the consultation processes.
Three main areas of competency were identified: counselling; screening; and health education and promotion. The competencies identified require a skilled experienced professional approach. A useful team model would be that the role is placed within a ‘GP cluster’ as accessibility to GP records and collaborative working with GPs is essential within the role. Personal continuing professional development has a high profile in maintaining these competencies.
The recent drive within the UK National Health Service to improve psychosocial care for people with mental illness is both understandable and welcome: evidence-based psychological and social interventions are extremely important in managing psychiatric illness. Nevertheless, the accompanying downgrading of medical aspects of care has resulted in services that often are better suited to offering non-specific psychosocial support, rather than thorough, broad-based diagnostic assessment leading to specific treatments to optimise well-being and functioning. In part, these changes have been politically driven, but they could not have occurred without the collusion, or at least the acquiescence, of psychiatrists. This creeping devaluation of medicine disadvantages patients and is very damaging to both the standing and the understanding of psychiatry in the minds of the public, fellow professionals and the medical students who will be responsible for the specialty's future. On the 200th birthday of psychiatry, it is fitting to reconsider the specialty's core values and renew efforts to use psychiatric skills for the maximum benefit of patients
British contributions to research and practice in human intelligence are described and discussed. The emphasis on individual differences in humans' cognitive abilities and the search for the origins of human intelligence differences are British contributions. Some applications of intelligence testing are described in education, in the workplace, and in clinical settings. In theory and research, British contributors commune with those from other countries, especially the United States and, therefore, their contributions are not distinctly different. In the application of intelligence testing there is more United Kingdom-specific practice, with tests and procedures that are specific to the United Kingdom. There are differences in practice even within the United Kingdom's nations.
DISSEMINATING AND CRITICIZING RESEARCH ON INTELLIGENCE: U.K. CONTRIBUTIONS
There are several U.K. academic psychologists who have written books on the research surrounding psychometric intelligence-in-the-round. These include introductory books and higher-level monographs.
Among the entry-level, introductory books – intended for lay people, junior students, and other non-experts – there is a range of opinions. Some are critical appraisals of the field but are from researchers whose work is within the psychometric tradition (e.g., Cooper, 1999; Deary, 2001b; Kline, 1991). Included in this group is Brand's (1996) The g Factor, which was withdrawn by the publisher soon after publication despite positive critical evaluations (e.g., Mackintosh, 1996a). Other books at this level are highly critical of the concept of intelligence and the psychometric approach more generally.
Excavations at Eaglestone Flat, on the gritstone eastern uplands of the Peak District, have revealed a Bronze Age cremation cemetery associated with a number of contemporaneous stone structures built for ritual and agricultural purposes. Some of the burials were within urns, mostly cordoned. Others were simply placed in pits whilst still hot. A minority were deposited in direct association with small cairns, either placed under or within them. The majority were on open ground near the stone features and adjacent to the upslope edge of a prehistoric field. Most of the stone structures are clearance features associated with the preparation and cultivation of the land close by over an extended period. They are found in a complex palimpsest, which includes structures of unusual design, such as retained rectangular platforms, and discontinuous walls that were only ever 1–2 courses high and probably surmounted by low banks. A series of radiocarbon results adds to knowledge of the date at which Peak District cairnftelds and field systems were built. Environmental data allows vegetational sequences to be reconstructed.
Silicon atom number density profiles have been measured using laser-induced fluorescence during the chemical vapor deposition of silicon from silane. Measurements were obtained in a rotating-disk reactor as a function of silane partial pressure and the amount of hydrogen added to the carrier gas. Absolute number densities were obtained using an atomic absorption technique. Results were compared with calculated density profiles from a model of the coupled fluid flow, gas-phase and surface chemistry for an infinite-radius rotating disk. An analysis of the reaction mechanism showed that the unimolecular decomposition of SiH2 is not the dominant source of Si atoms. Profile shapes and positions, and all experimental trends are well matched by the calculations. However, the calculated number density is up to 100 times smaller than measured.
A pharmacist collected data in an active geriatric outpatient program on 140 patients admitted consecutively over a 1-year period. Compliance was monitored by patient statement, pill counting, and daily written record-keeping of all medications with the help of a pocket diary provided in the program. Weekly pharmacist counseling sessions were then initiated for all patients. After four compliance sessions, two subgroups of patients were identified: 120 compliant patients and 20 patients showing persistent 50% noncompliance. Patients were interviewed by a psychiatrist to develop a profile of the noncompliant patient. This profile may be useful in identifying other noncompliant geriatric patients. Early recognition of this special group of patients in need of directed counseling may help reduce medical misjudgment in prescribing for the frail elderly population.
The composition of the diet fed to cows, the composition and coagulating properties of the milk produced by them and used for cheesemaking, the cheesemaking methods and the chemical composition, texture and grade of Cheshire cheese obtained from four farmhouse producers during the period December to June 1982–83 were investigated. The presence of pockets of loose fat in the cheese structure, which can lead to downgrading in the late winter and spring, was not related to the chemical composition of the milk and may arise from the handling of the milk before cheesemaking. Generally the composition of the forage and the milk varied with date, but not between the different farms, whereas the composition and properties of the cheese were dependent on the manufacturers but were fairly constant during the period of study.
In any appraisal of educational methods and progress in the Philippines, it is wise to bear in mind the fact that the essential purpose of the educational system has been, since 1901, political, rather than cultural. This is not said in any spirit of criticism of the Philippine educational pattern. It is rather simply a recognition of what the Filipinos themselves have recognized in respect to their choice of educational methods and their application of educational principles.
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