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Tibraca limbativentris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a major pest in Neotropical rice agroecosystems. In autumn–winter, this pest takes refuge in rice stubble and in native vegetation, which allows it to re-colonize the crop during the rice growing season. However, it is still unknown whether this vegetation is a pest sink or is actually a natural trap that contributes to pest population biocontrol. Here we present information on the insect's alternative host plants, a preliminary outline of the relationship between plant phylogeny and insect abundance, and the impact that winter natural enemies have in pest population. Also, we include a proposed methodology for pest density analysis in winter hosts. Our results show significant differences in the abundance/density that T. limbativentris reaches in the 12 host plant species present in our study areas, with a plant-use pattern significantly related to the phylogenetic clade of Poales. Stink bug winter populations mainly comprised diapause adults, and 40% of insect digestive tracts had content. Survival of T. limbativentris was 56.92% in winter hosts. About mortality, 10% was due to undetermined causes and 33.08% due to entomopathogenic fungi, showing a natural regulation of the pest population. Our results suggest that native vegetation impacts winter survival of T. limbativentris. Although these plants offer shelter, they offer a greater contribution to Integrated Pest Management: the natural regulation of winter pest populations through entomopathogenic attack. Further studies on T. limbativentris population dynamics and the preservation of native areas near rice fields will be required for the development of best control practices.
Long-acting injectable antipsychotic therapies may offer benefits over oral antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia. However, there is still a lack of real-world studies assessing the effectiveness of these therapies.
This study aimed to explore the safety, tolerability, and treatment response of aripiprazole monohydrate (AOM) once monthly in non-acute but symptomatic adult patients switched from previous therapy with frequently used oral or injectable atypical antipsychotics.
This was a post hoc analysis of a prospective, interventional, single-arm, open-label, 6-month study.
The patients (N=54) were switched to aripiprazole monohydrate once-monthly (AOM) from daily oral treatment or monthly injectable treatment with either aripiprazole (n=25), olanzapine (n=7), paliperidone extended-release (PP1M) (n=10), quetiapine (n=4), or risperidone (n=8). In all groups, mean Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total (p=0.0001) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity scores improved significantly (p=0.0001). A reduction of ≥50% reduction of BPRS total-score and a CGI severity-score ≤4 in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score were observed in 16.7% (aripiprazole), 21.2% (olanzapine), 35.1% (PP1M), 27.3% (quetiapine), and 37.2% (risperidone) of patients. The patients showed significant improvements involving safety features as they experienced significant overall weight loss (p=0.0001) and prolactine decrease (risperidone p=0.0001, paliperidone extended-release p=0.0001). AOM once-monthly was well tolerated, presenting no new safety signals. Patient also reported an overall significant improvement on their quality of life measured with the Quality of Life Rating Scale (QLS) (p=0.0004) as well as in sexual functioning PRSexDQ-SALSEX (p=0.0001). In addition, the all cause treatment discontinuation rate after6-month follow-up was small (n=3; 5,55%)
These data illustrate that stable, non-acute but symptomatic patients either on oral antipsychotic therapy or under monthly antipsychotic treatment may show clinically meaningful improvement of psychotic symptoms, tolerability involving relevant side effects and quality of life perception. The findings are limited by the naturalistic study design; thus, further studies are required to confirm the current findings.