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The Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI) is a globally complete collection of digital outlines of glaciers, excluding the ice sheets, developed to meet the needs of the Fifth Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for estimates of past and future mass balance. The RGI was created with limited resources in a short period. Priority was given to completeness of coverage, but a limited, uniform set of attributes is attached to each of the ~198 000 glaciers in its latest version, 3.2. Satellite imagery from 1999–2010 provided most of the outlines. Their total extent is estimated as 726 800 ± 34 000 km2. The uncertainty, about ±5%, is derived from careful single-glacier and basin-scale uncertainty estimates and comparisons with inventories that were not sources for the RGI. The main contributors to uncertainty are probably misinterpretation of seasonal snow cover and debris cover. These errors appear not to be normally distributed, and quantifying them reliably is an unsolved problem. Combined with digital elevation models, the RGI glacier outlines yield hypsometries that can be combined with atmospheric data or model outputs for analysis of the impacts of climatic change on glaciers. The RGI has already proved its value in the generation of significantly improved aggregate estimates of glacier mass changes and total volume, and thus actual and potential contributions to sea-level rise.
In a series of articles in this journal, Wes Morriston has launched what can only be considered a full-scale assault on the divine command theory (DCT) of morality. According to Morriston, proponents of this theory are committed to an alarming counterpossible: that if God did command an annual human sacrifice, it would be morally obligatory. Since only a ‘terrible’ deity would do such a ‘terrible’ thing, we should reject DCT. Indeed, if there were such a deity, the world would be a terrible place – certainly far worse than it is. We argue that Morriston's non-standard method for assessing counterpossibles of this sort is flawed. Not only is the savvy DCT-ist at liberty to reject it, but Morriston's method badly misfires in the face of theistic activism – a metaphysical platform available to DCT-ists, according to which if God didn't exist, neither would anything else.
First, to evaluate the ability of a short dietary questionnaire (SDQ) to estimate energy intake (EI) on group and individual levels compared with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by the doubly labelled water method. Second, to compare the SDQ's performance in estimating energy, nutrient and food intakes with a sixty-six-item FFQ used in large-scale Swedish epidemiological research.
In total, sixty-five non-pregnant women, of whom thirty-one were overweight or obese, and twenty-five pregnant, normal-weight women completed the protocol.
On average, the SDQ captured 78 % and 79 % of absolute TEE in the non-pregnant and pregnant normal-weight women, respectively. Furthermore, the SDQ captured an average of 57 % of TEE in the overweight/obese non-pregnant women. The Spearman correlation of EI and TEE was significant in the overweight and obese women only (ρ = 0·37, 95 % CI 0·02, 0·64). There was no significant difference between the SDQ and the more extensive FFQ in the ability to assess EI when compared with TEE. Intakes of most nutrients and foods were significantly higher when assessed with the SDQ compared with the FFQ.
A new short dietary questionnaire with an alternative design underestimated EI of non-pregnant and pregnant, overweight and obese women on a group level but was able to rank the overweight/obese women according to EI. Furthermore, the short questionnaire captured as much or more of the energy, nutrient and food intakes of non-pregnant normal-weight and overweight/obese women on the group level as a traditional, more extensive FFQ.
M. Paul Marchegay of Angers, ancien Archiviste du departement de Maine et Loire, has forwarded to the Society transcripts of some letters which he has found among the records of the Tremoille family, preserved at Serrant in Anjou.
They consist chiefly of twenty-one unpublished letters written by Elizabeth Queen of Bohemia, and three by the King of Bohemia, all addressed to various members of the Tremoille family. One letter, however, which is of an earlier date, relates only indirectly to Elizabeth, and should properly be considered before those written by the unfortunate daughter of James I. or her husband.
Studies have suggested that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of CVD and premature mortality in individuals with diabetes mellitus. However, history of alcohol consumption has hardly been taken into account. We investigated the association between current alcohol consumption and mortality in men and women with diabetes mellitus accounting for past alcohol consumption. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a cohort was defined of 4797 participants with a confirmed diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Men and women were assigned to categories of baseline and past alcohol consumption. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for total mortality were estimated with multivariable Cox regression models, using light alcohol consumption (>0–6 g/d) as the reference category. Compared with light alcohol consumption, no relationship was observed between consumption of 6 g/d or more and total mortality. HR for >6–12 g/d was 0·89 (95 % CI 0·61, 1·30) in men and 0·86 (95 % CI 0·46, 1·60) in women. Adjustment for past alcohol consumption did not change the estimates substantially. In individuals who at baseline reported abstaining from alcohol, mortality rates were increased relative to light consumers: HR was 1·52 (95 % CI 0·99, 2·35) in men and 1·81 (95 % CI 1·04, 3·17) in women. The present study in diabetic individuals showed no association between current alcohol consumption >6 g/d and mortality risk compared with light consumption. The increased mortality risk among non-consumers appeared to be affected by their past alcohol consumption rather than their current abstinence.
We report on electrical and optical properties of vertical Bridgman grown Cl-doped CdTe including the ternary compositions Cd0.9Zn0.1Te and CdTe0 9Se0.1 with respect to application as a radiation detector. Based on Hall effect measurements, photoinduced current spectroscopy (PICTS) and photoluminescence we infer that high resistive material with good performance is controlled by deep level defects. The resistivity is calculated as a function of the shallow acceptor concentration (Cl-A-centers) with the conclusion that a deep donor state at mid gap must be present.
(111) wafers sliced from a boule of ZnTe grown by horizontal physical vapor transport (PVT) have been characterized using synchrotron white beam X-ray topography. The growth axis was about 6° off . The presence of dislocation slip bands, subgrain structures and  axis 180° rotational twins were revealed. The slip bands were observed to break up the ordered dislocation cell structures comprising the subgrain boundaries. The initiation of slip at regions of stress concentration at the junctions of subgrain boundaries and twin boundaries was observed. The asymmetric distribution of slip bands either side of the twinned region of crystal suggests that twin boundaries can act as barriers for slip. Several types of detailed twin boundary configuration were determined from the topographs. Using a combination of white beam X-ray topography and Nomarski interference microscopy, the three dimensional shapes of the twin boundaries were determined. Approximate atomic structures at these boundaries are presented.
The importance of bulk defects in Si to the performance of Si radiation detectors is discussed and the current state of knowledge about deep level defects, including those induced by radiation damage, is briefly reviewed. The importance and origins of the fluctuations in the spatial distribution of the shallow point defects which determine the uncompensated net impurity density are discussed and information on this problem in FZ silicon, multipass FZ silicon, neutron transmutation doped Si, and radiation damaged Si is presented and compared to what should be expected on the basis of simple modeling. A new model for radiation damage induced changes in the net uncompensated impurity density is reviewed and compared to experimental data on fast neutron damage in Si.
Single-crystal type IIa diamonds were synthesized by applying high temperatures (1200°;C) and high pressures (52000 atm) to powdered polycrystalline diamond grown using conventional CVD techniques. These samples were isotopically pure, consisting of approximately 99.93% 12C, compared to roughly 98.96% in natural IIa diamonds. In addition, the dislocation density of the synthetic samples is significantly lower than in natural IIa diamonds, as indicated by birefringence measurements. Electrical properties of these samples were measured using transient photoconductivity, where a 3 ps pulse of ultraviolet light (6.1 eV) was used to excite free electron-hole pairs. Compared to natural IIa diamonds, the lifetime at low fields (200 V/cm) and low excitation densities (1015 cm-3) in the synthetic sample was significantly longer (1 ns in the synthetic sample vs. 200 to 300 ps in natural diamond). At higher fields, a much longer decay component, exceeding 10 ns, was observed in the synthetic sample. Combined electron and hole mobilities were around 2500 cm2/V-s in the synthetic diamond, compared to 3000 to 4000 cm2/V-s in the best natural samples. At a field of 2 kV/cm, the drift distance in the synthetic sample was over 50 μm, considerably longer than that of natural diamond (10 μm). This is due primarily to the much longer carrier lifetimes. The longer lifetimes in the synthetic sample demonstrate that the properties of the best natural diamonds can be exceeded and are encouraging for the development of sensitive diamond radiation detectors. These longer lifetimes are likely due to the higher quality and lower defect density in the synthetic samples, rather than the isotopic purity.
Deep levels have a great influence on the recombination behavior of the free carriers in semiconductors. For several years PICTS has been used to investigate the deep levels in high resistivity material such as GaAs or CdTe used in detector applications. An important feature of the PICTS measurements is the analysis of the current transients after pulse excitation. We propose using a new method based on Tikhonov regularization. This method was implemented in the program FTIKREG (Fast Tikhonov Regularization) by one of the authors. The superior resolution of the regularization method in comparison to conventional techniques is shown using simulated data. Moreover, the method is applied to investigate deep levels in CdTe:Cl, SI-GaAs and GaAs:Cr samples used for room temperature radiation detectors. A relation between deep level properties and detector performance is proposed.
Both the cadmium vacancy (Vcd) and the tellurium vacancy (VTe) in CdTe are identified by means of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The VCd is a double acceptor and the EPR spectrum is observed in its single negative charge state. The symmetry is found to be trigonal, which can be explained in a model in which the hole occupies a dangling bond t2 orbital and the orbital degeneracy is removed by a static Jahn-Teller distortion. The hyperfine interaction shows that the hole is localised on one of the four Te neighbours. The EPR spectrum of VTe+ reveals cubic (unperturbed) symmetry and the hyperfine structure shows that the unpaired electron is equally spread over the four Cd neighbours.
Photo-EPR measurements locate the 0/+ state of VTe at Ev + 0.2 eV and the 2−/− acceptor level of VCd to be situated less than 0.47 eV above the valence band.