To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In a series of articles in this journal, Wes Morriston has launched what can only be considered a full-scale assault on the divine command theory (DCT) of morality. According to Morriston, proponents of this theory are committed to an alarming counterpossible: that if God did command an annual human sacrifice, it would be morally obligatory. Since only a ‘terrible’ deity would do such a ‘terrible’ thing, we should reject DCT. Indeed, if there were such a deity, the world would be a terrible place – certainly far worse than it is. We argue that Morriston's non-standard method for assessing counterpossibles of this sort is flawed. Not only is the savvy DCT-ist at liberty to reject it, but Morriston's method badly misfires in the face of theistic activism – a metaphysical platform available to DCT-ists, according to which if God didn't exist, neither would anything else.
The Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI) is a globally complete collection of digital outlines of glaciers, excluding the ice sheets, developed to meet the needs of the Fifth Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for estimates of past and future mass balance. The RGI was created with limited resources in a short period. Priority was given to completeness of coverage, but a limited, uniform set of attributes is attached to each of the ~198 000 glaciers in its latest version, 3.2. Satellite imagery from 1999–2010 provided most of the outlines. Their total extent is estimated as 726 800 ± 34 000 km2. The uncertainty, about ±5%, is derived from careful single-glacier and basin-scale uncertainty estimates and comparisons with inventories that were not sources for the RGI. The main contributors to uncertainty are probably misinterpretation of seasonal snow cover and debris cover. These errors appear not to be normally distributed, and quantifying them reliably is an unsolved problem. Combined with digital elevation models, the RGI glacier outlines yield hypsometries that can be combined with atmospheric data or model outputs for analysis of the impacts of climatic change on glaciers. The RGI has already proved its value in the generation of significantly improved aggregate estimates of glacier mass changes and total volume, and thus actual and potential contributions to sea-level rise.
First, to evaluate the ability of a short dietary questionnaire (SDQ) to estimate energy intake (EI) on group and individual levels compared with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by the doubly labelled water method. Second, to compare the SDQ's performance in estimating energy, nutrient and food intakes with a sixty-six-item FFQ used in large-scale Swedish epidemiological research.
In total, sixty-five non-pregnant women, of whom thirty-one were overweight or obese, and twenty-five pregnant, normal-weight women completed the protocol.
On average, the SDQ captured 78 % and 79 % of absolute TEE in the non-pregnant and pregnant normal-weight women, respectively. Furthermore, the SDQ captured an average of 57 % of TEE in the overweight/obese non-pregnant women. The Spearman correlation of EI and TEE was significant in the overweight and obese women only (ρ = 0·37, 95 % CI 0·02, 0·64). There was no significant difference between the SDQ and the more extensive FFQ in the ability to assess EI when compared with TEE. Intakes of most nutrients and foods were significantly higher when assessed with the SDQ compared with the FFQ.
A new short dietary questionnaire with an alternative design underestimated EI of non-pregnant and pregnant, overweight and obese women on a group level but was able to rank the overweight/obese women according to EI. Furthermore, the short questionnaire captured as much or more of the energy, nutrient and food intakes of non-pregnant normal-weight and overweight/obese women on the group level as a traditional, more extensive FFQ.
Studies have suggested that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of CVD and premature mortality in individuals with diabetes mellitus. However, history of alcohol consumption has hardly been taken into account. We investigated the association between current alcohol consumption and mortality in men and women with diabetes mellitus accounting for past alcohol consumption. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a cohort was defined of 4797 participants with a confirmed diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Men and women were assigned to categories of baseline and past alcohol consumption. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for total mortality were estimated with multivariable Cox regression models, using light alcohol consumption (>0–6 g/d) as the reference category. Compared with light alcohol consumption, no relationship was observed between consumption of 6 g/d or more and total mortality. HR for >6–12 g/d was 0·89 (95 % CI 0·61, 1·30) in men and 0·86 (95 % CI 0·46, 1·60) in women. Adjustment for past alcohol consumption did not change the estimates substantially. In individuals who at baseline reported abstaining from alcohol, mortality rates were increased relative to light consumers: HR was 1·52 (95 % CI 0·99, 2·35) in men and 1·81 (95 % CI 1·04, 3·17) in women. The present study in diabetic individuals showed no association between current alcohol consumption >6 g/d and mortality risk compared with light consumption. The increased mortality risk among non-consumers appeared to be affected by their past alcohol consumption rather than their current abstinence.
Large-scale aetiological studies of obesity and its pathological consequences require accurate measurements of adipose mass, distribution and subtype. Here, we compared the validity of three abdominal obesity assessment methods (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), ultrasound and anthropometry) against the gold-standard method of computed tomography (CT) in twenty-nine non-diseased middle-aged men (BMI 26·5 (sd 3·1) kg/m2) and women (BMI 25·5 (sd 3·2) kg/m2). Assessments of adipose mass (kg) and distribution (total subcutaneous (TSAT), superficial subcutaneous (SSAT), deep subcutaneous (DSAT) and visceral (VAT)) were obtained. Spearman's correlations were performed adjusted for age and sex. VAT area that was assessed using ultrasound (r 0·79; P < 0·0001) and waist circumference (r 0·85; P < 0·0001) correlated highly with VAT from CT, as did BMI (r 0·67; P < 0·0001) and DXA (r 0·70; P < 0·0001). DXA (r 0·72; P = 0·0004), BMI (r 0·71; P = 0·0003), waist circumference (r 0·86; P < 0·0001) and ultrasound (r 0·52; P = 0·015) were less strongly correlated with CT TSAT. None of the comparison measures of DSAT was strongly correlated with CT DSAT (all r approximately 0·50; P < 0·02). BMI (r 0·76; P < 0·0001), waist circumference (r 0·65; P = 0·002) and DXA (r 0·75; P < 0·0001) were all fairly strongly correlated with the CT measure of SSAT, whereas ultrasound yielded a weaker yet statistically significant correlation (r 0·48; P = 0·03). Compared with CT, visceral and subcutaneous adiposity can be assessed with reasonable validity using waist circumference and BMI, respectively. Ultrasound or DXA does not generally provide substantially better measures of these traits. Highly valid assessments of DSAT do not appear to be possible with surrogate measures. These findings may help guide the selection of measures for epidemiological studies of obesity.
Antisense oligonucleotides as a therapeutic platform have been slow to progress since the approval of the first antisense drug in 1998. Recently, there have been several examples of convincing antisense interventions in animal models and promising clinical trial data. This review considers the factors determining the success of antisense oligonucleotides as therapeutic agents. In order to produce target knockdown after systemic delivery, antisense oligonucleotides must avoid nuclease degradation, reticuloendothelial-system uptake and rapid renal excretion, and extravasate to the target cell type outside the vasculature. They then must enter the target cell, and escape the endosome–lysosome pathway so as to be free to interact with the target mRNA. We consider the significance of these limiting factors based on the literature and our own experience using systemic administration of antisense oligonucleotides.
Blessed be God, who has given of His wisdom to Kant.
Since the end of the eighteenth century, no non-Jewish philosopher has been more central to Jewish philosophy than Kant. The major Jewish philosophers of late modernity have worked out their positions in relation to Kant, sometimes through the mediation of post-Kantians such as Hegel, Schelling, and Schopenhauer - just as the major ancient and medieval Jewish philosophers worked out their positions in relation to Plato, sometimes through the mediation of post-Platonists such as Aristotle, Plotinus and Alfarabi. What is the cause of Jewish philosophy’s intimate relation to Kant?
One explanation is that Kant’s career coincided with the entry of Jews into German academic and intellectual life, a development to which Kant was openly sympathetic and for which justification could be found in his philosophy, with its doctrine of equal respect for each rational being. When Moses Mendelssohn visited Kant’s lectures in Königsberg, Kant is said to have silenced the students' anti-Semitic jeers by greeting the great Jewish philosopher with a show of respect. Kant had several Jewish students, including Markus Herz, whom he chose to defend his (Kant’s) inaugural dissertation in 1770. These students, to whom an academic career was open only if they converted to Christianity, chose instead to promote Kantianism from within the Jewish community.
We report on the impact of silicon precursor choice on the electrical and physical properties of hafnium silicate (HfSiO) gate dielectrics deposited by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Hafnium tert-butoxide (HTB) was used as the hafnium source and silane and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) were used as silicon sources. Elemental depth profiles were measured with sub-nm resolution using medium energy ion scattering (MEIS). For Hf-rich films employing TEOS as the silicon precursor, relatively little Si is incorporated at the bottom interface compared with the top; while using SiH4, a more uniform Si distribution is achieved. These physical differences are then correlated with the electrical performance of transistors employing polysilicon gate electrodes. Transistors incorporating SiH4 based HfSiOx gate dielectrics with low silicon concentrations have lower C-V hysteresis and higher high field mobility than those using TEOS based dielectrics. We demonstrate polysilicon gated transistors which have an electrical thickness in inversion (Tinv) that can be scaled to ~21 A with good leakage reduction when employing nitrided bottom interface layers in combination with optimized HfSiOx dielectrics. Reduced silicon concentration resulted in a lower inversion thickness for a fixed physical thickness contributing to the higher drive currents in transistors.