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Background: Multimodal approaches are often used to prevent transmission of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens among patients in healthcare settings; understanding the effect of individual interventions is challenging. We designed a model to compare the effectiveness of hand hygiene (HH) with or without decolonization in reducing patient colonization with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE). Methods: We developed an agent-based model to represent transmission of CRE in an acute-care hospital comprising 3 general wards and 2 ICUs, each with 20 single-occupancy rooms, located in a community of 85,000 people. The model accounted for the movement of healthcare personnel (HCP), including their visits to patients. CRE dynamics were modeled using a susceptible–infectious–susceptible framework with transmission occurring via HCP–patient contacts. The mean time to clearance of CRE colonization without intervention was 387 days (Zimmerman et al, 2013). Our baseline included a facility-level HH compliance of 30%, with an assumed efficacy of 50%. Contact precautions were employed for patients with CRE-positive cultures with assumed adherence and efficacy of 80% and 50%, respectively. Intervention scenarios included decolonization of culture-positive CRE patients, with a mean time to decolonization of 3 days. We considered 2 hypothetical intervention scenarios: (A) decolonization of patients with the baseline HH compliance and (B) decolonization with a slightly improved HH compliance of 35%. The hospital-level CRE incidence rate was used to compare the results from these intervention scenarios. Results: CRE incidence rates were lower in intervention scenarios than the baseline scenario (Fig. 1). The baseline mean incidence rate was 29.1 per 10,000 patient days. For decolonization with the baseline HH, the mean incidence rate decreased to 14.5 per 10,000 patient days, which is a 50.2% decrease relative to the baseline incidence (Table 1). The decolonization scenario with a slightly improved HH compliance of 35% produced a relative reduction of 71.9% relative to the baseline incidence. Conclusions: Our analysis shows that decolonization, combined with modest improvement in HH compliance, could lead to large decreases in pathogen transmission. In turn, this model implies that efforts to identify and improve decolonization strategies for better patient safety in health care may be needed and are worth exploring.
Background: Pathogen transmission among staff and residents in nursing homes can vary depending on their interactions and by the amount of time a resident receives care in the facility. Understanding the relative differences in transmission rates between and among staff and residents can identify the pathways that contributed most to the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in US nursing homes. Further exploring relative differences by categorizing facilities by residents’ lengths of stay can identify priority categories for intervention. Methods: Using US National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance data on resident and staff cases, vaccination, and resident deaths during June 2020–June 2022, we estimated SARS-CoV-2 transmission among and between residents and staff. We used a Bayesian inversion of a susceptible–exposed–infected–removed–virus–death (SEIRVD) compartmental model to produce the estimates. The facilities were divided into those with median length of stay (LOS) among the residents of 10 weeks. Additional inputs included the incidence and vaccination levels of the county where each facility was located. For the compartmental model, all data were averaged to form a representative facility for each category. Transmission was estimated separately for 3 periods: (1) June 2020–March 2021 as before the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant, (2) April 2021—October 2021 during SARS-CoV-2 delta variant dominance, and (3) November 2021—June 2022 during the prevalence of the SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant. Results: Regardless of facility category, transmission was highest from staff to residents or resident to resident (Fig.). These estimates of transmission were highest during the pre–SARS-CoV-2 delta variant phase. Transmission in that phase was highest in the facilities with LOS >10 weeks from staff to residents at 0.88 per week (95% credible interval [CrI], 0.06–1.85), in the facilities with LOS 6–10 weeks from staff to residents at 0.68 per week (95% CrI, 0.03–1.78), and in the facilities with LOS <6 weeks between residents at 0.47 per week (95% CrI, 0.02–0.95). Conclusions: Staff-to-resident or resident-to-resident transmission were the dominant pathways of spread of SARS-CoV-2 across the periods or the facility categories. Facilities with LOS 6 weeks or longer had higher median transmission estimates across the periods and transmission routes compared to facilities with LOS less than 6 weeks, implying that when prioritization of intervention resources is needed, facilities caring for populations with longer stays could be prioritized.
The boundary between services for children and adolescents and adults has been identified as problematic for young people with mental health problems.
To examine the use and cost of healthcare for young people engaged in mental healthcare before and after the child/adolescent and adult service boundary.
Data from 772 young people in seven European countries participating in the MILESTONE trial were analysed. We analysed and costed healthcare resources used in the 6-month period before and after the service boundary.
The proportion of young people engaging with healthcare services fell substantially after crossing the service boundary (associated costs €7761 pre-boundary v. €3376 post-boundary). Pre-boundary, the main cost driver was in-patient care (approximately 50%), whereas post-boundary costs were more evenly spread between services; cost reductions were correlated with pre-boundary in-patient care. Severity was associated with substantially higher costs pre- and post-boundary, and those who were engaged specifically with mental health services after the service boundary accrued the greatest healthcare costs post-service boundary.
Costs of healthcare are large in this population, but fall considerably after transition, particularly for those who were most severely ill. In part, this is likely to reflect improvement in the mental health of young people. However, qualitative evidence from the MILESTONE study suggests that lack of capacity in adult services and young people's disengagement with formal mental health services post-transition are contributing factors. Long-term data are needed to assess the adverse long-term effects on costs and health of this unmet need and disengagement.
Opioid withdrawal symptoms classically include severe muscle cramps, bone aches, autonomic symptoms, anxiety. Patients seldom have other complications like delirium and convulsions unless they have comorbid medical illnesses.
We hereby report a case of opioid withdrawal delirium.
A 20-year-old man with dependence for opiods and nicotine was admitted after compete history and mental status and physical examination, last intake for both substances 2 days back. There was no history of fever, head injury, siezures and other substance use. All investigations done were normal and urine drug screen was negative for other substances. Treatment was started with clonidine and quetiapine for sleep and Nsaids on prn basis. After 2 days there was hallucinatory behaviour, agitation, fleeting episodes of recognising family members, hearing voices and decreased sleep observed. Patient required sedation with 10 mg of lorazepam and haloperidol before he went to sleep.Later on lorazepam 8 mg in divided doses and clonidine was tapered off gradually and patient as discharged on naltrexone 50mg.
In our case we could not find any other reason for delirium.These complications are rare feature of delirium, parker et all reported 5 such cases. One of limitations was we didnt do blood alcohol levels which could have ruled out alcohol use.
This case is unique in terms of presenting with delirium without convulsions after 4 days of abstinence. No associated comorbidities, organic causes, and other substance use in dependence pattern or recently used. Use of a street variety (mixed with impurities) could be a risk factor for delirium in our patient.Psychiatrist need to be aware of complication.
1. Conventional indications for renal replacement therapy (RRT) are refractory hyperkalaemia, refractory metabolic acidosis, pulmonary oedema, uraemia and sustained oliguria or anuria with fluid overload.
2. Two major principles of RRT are diffusion and convection.
3. Intermittent haemodialysis (IHD), prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) are commonly used in intensive care units. These modalities differ in regard to the duration of therapy and blood flow rate, hence the rapidity of solute and fluid removal. They are used to supplement one another according to each patient’s status and clinical settings.
4. When prescribing CRRT, the modality, vascular access, blood flow rate, dose, anticoagulation, target fluid balance and fluid composition should be considered.
5. RRT-related complications, such as vascular access complications, hypotension and electrolyte imbalances, should be frequently monitored, prevented and appropriately managed.
Poor transition planning contributes to discontinuity of care at the child–adult mental health service boundary (SB), adversely affecting mental health outcomes in young people (YP). The aim of the study was to determine whether managed transition (MT) improves mental health outcomes of YP reaching the child/adolescent mental health service (CAMHS) boundary compared with usual care (UC).
A two-arm cluster-randomised trial (ISRCTN83240263 and NCT03013595) with clusters allocated 1:2 between MT and UC. Recruitment took place in 40 CAMHS (eight European countries) between October 2015 and December 2016. Eligible participants were CAMHS service users who were receiving treatment or had a diagnosed mental disorder, had an IQ ⩾ 70 and were within 1 year of reaching the SB. MT was a multi-component intervention that included CAMHS training, systematic identification of YP approaching SB, a structured assessment (Transition Readiness and Appropriateness Measure) and sharing of information between CAMHS and adult mental health services. The primary outcome was HoNOSCA (Health of the Nation Outcome Scale for Children and Adolescents) score 15-months post-entry to the trial.
The mean difference in HoNOSCA scores between the MT and UC arms at 15 months was −1.11 points (95% confidence interval −2.07 to −0.14, p = 0.03). The cost of delivering the intervention was relatively modest (€17–€65 per service user).
MT led to improved mental health of YP after the SB but the magnitude of the effect was small. The intervention can be implemented at low cost and form part of planned and purposeful transitional care.
There is limited research on community-based mental health interventions in former Soviet countries despite different contextual factors from where most research has been conducted. Ongoing military conflict has resulted in many displaced persons and veterans and their families with high burdens of mental health problems. Lack of community-based services and poor uptake of existing psychiatric services led to the current trial to determine the effectiveness of the common elements treatment approach (CETA) on anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) among conflict affected adults in Ukraine.
We conducted a three-armed randomized-controlled trial of CETA delivered in its standard form (8–12 sessions), a brief form (five-sessions), and a wait-control condition. Eligible participants were displaced adults, army veterans and their adult family members with elevated depression and/or PTS and impaired functioning. Treatment was delivered by community-based providers trained in both standard and brief CETA. Outcome data were collected monthly.
There were 302 trial participants (n = 117 brief CETA, n = 129 standard CETA, n = 56 wait-controls). Compared with wait-controls, participants in standard and brief CETA experienced clinically and statistically significant reductions in depression, anxiety, and PTS and dysfunction (effect sizes d = 0.46–1.0–6). Comparing those who received standard CETA with brief CETA, the former reported fewer symptoms and less dysfunction with small-to-medium effect sized (d = 0.20–0.55).
Standard CETA is more effective than brief CETA, but brief CETA also had significant effects compared with wait-controls. Given demonstrated effectiveness, CETA could be scaled up as an effective community-based approach.
Background: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a major global threat to patient safety. Systematic surveillance is crucial for understanding HAI rates and antimicrobial resistance trends and to guide infection prevention and control (IPC) activities based on local epidemiology. In India, no standardized national HAI surveillance system was in place before 2017. Methods: Public and private hospitals from across 21 states in India were recruited to participate in an HAI surveillance network. Baseline assessments followed by trainings ensured that basic microbiology and IPC implementation capacity existed at all sites. Standardized surveillance protocols for central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) were modified from the NHSN for the Indian context. IPC nurses were trained to implement surveillance protocols. Data were reported through a locally developed web portal. Standardized external data quality checks were performed to assure data quality. Results: Between May 2017 and April 2019, 109 ICUs from 37 hospitals (29 public and 8 private) enrolled in the network, of which 33 were teaching hospitals with >500 beds. The network recorded 679,109 patient days, 212,081 central-line days, and 387,092 urinary catheter days. Overall, 4,301 bloodstream infection (BSI) events and 1,402 urinary tract infection (UTI) events were reported. The network CLABSI rate was 9.4 per 1,000 central-line days and the CAUTI rate was 3.4 per 1,000 catheter days. The central-line utilization ratio was 0.31 and the urinary catheter utilization ratio was 0.57. Moreover, 3,542 (73%) of 4,742 pathogens reported from BSIs and 868 (53%) of 1,644 pathogens reported from UTIs were gram negative. Also, 1,680 (26.3%) of all 6,386 pathogens reported were Enterobacteriaceae. Of 1,486 Enterobacteriaceae with complete antibiotic susceptibility testing data reported, 832 (57%) were carbapenem resistant. Of 951 Enterobacteriaceae subjected to colistin broth microdilution testing, 62 (7%) were colistin resistant. The surveillance platform identified 2 separate hospital-level HAI outbreaks; one caused by colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae and another due to Burkholderia cepacia. Phased expansion of surveillance to additional hospitals continues. Conclusions: HAI surveillance was successfully implemented across a national network of diverse hospitals using modified NHSN protocols. Surveillance data are being used to understand HAI burden and trends at the facility and national levels, to inform public policy, and to direct efforts to implement effective hospital IPC activities. This network approach to HAI surveillance may provide lessons to other countries or contexts with limited surveillance capacity.
Re-planning mid-treatment, with the adjustment of target volumes, has been performed as part of the normal workflow at our institution. We sought to quantify the benefit of this approach and identify factors to optimise plan adaptive strategies.
Materials and methods:
Patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer treated to 70 Gy with concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) on TomoTherapy® who underwent re-planning during the treatment were eligible. Survival and prognostic factors were evaluated with Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards, two-side p-value <0·05 significant.
Forty-two patients were identified with Stage III (n = 5), IVA (n = 34) and IVB (n = 3) [AJCC 7th] disease. Median re-planning dose was 40 Gy (14–60 Gy). Median change in mean total parotid dose was reduction of 1 Gy (range –7·5 Gy to +13·9 Gy). The volume of PTV70 and PTV60 receiving 99% of the prescribed (V99) dose was increased by 2·2% (–3·3 to +16·6%) and 1·9% (–11·5 to +12·6%) by re-planning. As a continuous variable, increasing per cent nodal regression was associated with the improved disease control in a multivariate model including stage, pack years smoking and human papilloma viral (HPV) status (HR: 0·85, 0·71–0·99, p = 0·05).
Adaptive planning generates a superior plan for the majority of patients, but there is modest overall parotid gland sparing.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and an increasingly common infection in children in both hospital and community settings. Between 20% and 30% of pediatric patients will have a recurrence of symptoms in the days to weeks following an initial infection. Multiple recurrences have been successfully treated with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), though the body of evidence in pediatric patients is limited primarily to case reports and case series. The goal of our study was to better understand practices, success, and safety of FMT in children as well as identify risk factors associated with a failed FMT in our pediatric patients. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This multicenter retrospective analysis included 373 patients who underwent FMT for CDI between January 1, 2006 and January 1, 2017 from 18 pediatric centers. Demographics, baseline characteristics, FMT practices, C. difficile outcomes, and post-FMT complications were collected through chart abstraction. Successful FMT was defined as no recurrence of CDI within 60 days after FMT. Of the 373 patients in the cohort, 342 had known outcome data at two months post-FMT and were included in the primary analysis evaluating risk factors for recurrence post-FMT. An additional six patients who underwent FMT for refractory CDI were excluded from the primary analysis. Unadjusted analysis was performed using Wilcoxon rank-sum test, Pearson χ2 test, or Fisher exact test where appropriate. Stepwise logistic regression was utilized to determine independent predictors of success. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The median age of included patients was 10 years (IQR; 3.0, 15.0) and 50% of patients were female. The majority of the cohort was White (89.0%). Comorbidities included 120 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and 14 patients who had undergone a solid organ or stem cell transplantation. Of the 336 patients with known outcomes at two months, 272 (81%) had a successful outcome. In the 64 (19%) patients that did have a recurrence, 35 underwent repeat FMT which was successful in 20 of the 35 (57%). The overall success rate of FMT in preventing further episodes of CDI in the cohort with known outcome data was 87%. Unadjusted predictors of a primary FMT response are summarized. Based on stepwise logistic regression modeling, the use of fresh stool, FMT delivery via colonoscopy, the lack of a feeding tube, and a lower number of CDI episodes before undergoing FMT were independently associated with a successful outcome. There were 20 adverse events in the cohort assessed to be related to FMT, 6 of which were felt to be severe. There were no deaths assessed to be related to FMT in the cohort. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The overall success of FMT in pediatric patients with recurrent or severe CDI is 81% after a single FMT. Children without a feeding tube, who receive an early FMT, FMT with fresh stool, or FMT via colonoscopy are less likely to have a recurrence of CDI in the 2 months following FMT. This is the first large study of FMT for CDI in a pediatric cohort. These findings, if confirmed by additional prospective studies, will support alterations in the practice of FMT in children.
A new fossil spider is described from the early Eocene (Ypresian) Palana Formation (54 to 57 Ma) at the Gurha opencast lignite mine, near Bikaner, western Rajasthan, India. It is the first report of a nonamber fossil spider from India. The fossil is referred to the modern genus Nephila Leach, 1815, but with hesitation because, while its habitus is similar to that genus, it lacks the behavioral synapomorphies that distinguish the genus.