To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The current study advanced research on the link between community violence exposure and aggression by comparing the effects of violence exposure on different functions of aggression and by testing four potential (i.e., callous–unemotional traits, consideration of others, impulse control, and anxiety) mediators of this relationship. Analyses were conducted in an ethnically/racially diverse sample of 1,216 male first-time juvenile offenders (M = 15.30 years, SD = 1.29). Our results indicated that violence exposure had direct effects on both proactive and reactive aggression 18 months later. The predictive link of violence exposure to proactive aggression was no longer significant after controlling for proactive aggression at baseline and the overlap with reactive aggression. In contrast, violence exposure predicted later reactive aggression even after controlling for baseline reactive aggression and the overlap with proactive aggression. Mediation analyses of the association between violence exposure and reactive aggression indicated indirect effects through all potential mediators, but the strongest indirect effect was through impulse control. The findings help to advance knowledge on the consequences of community violence exposure on justice-involved youth.
Eight million American children under the age of 5 attend daycare and more than another 50 million American children are in school or daycare settings. Emergency planning requirements for daycare licensing vary by state. Expert opinions were used to create a disaster preparedness video designed for daycare providers to cover a broad spectrum of scenarios.
Various stakeholders (17) devised the outline for an educational pre-disaster video for child daycare providers using the Delphi technique. Fleiss κ values were obtained for consensus data. A 20-minute video was created, addressing the physical, psychological, and legal needs of children during and after a disaster. Viewers completed an anonymous survey to evaluate topic comprehension.
A consensus was attempted on all topics, ranging from elements for inclusion to presentation format. The Fleiss κ value of 0.07 was obtained. Fifty-seven of the total 168 video viewers completed the 10-question survey, with comprehension scores ranging from 72% to 100%.
Evaluation of caregivers that viewed our video supports understanding of video contents. Ultimately, the technique used to create and disseminate the resources may serve as a template for others providing pre-disaster planning education. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:123–127)
Developing and implementing effective strategies to increase influenza vaccination rates among health care personnel is an ongoing challenge, especially during a pandemic. We used participatory action research (PAR) methodology to identify targeted vaccination interventions that could potentially improve vaccine uptake in a medical center.
Front-line medical center personnel were recruited to participate in 2 PAR teams (clinical and nonclinical staff). Data from a recent medical center survey on barriers and facilitators to influenza (seasonal, pandemic, and combination) vaccine uptake were reviewed, and strategies to increase vaccination rates among medical center personnel were identified.
Feasible, creative, and low-cost interventions were identified, including organizational strategies that differed from investigator-identified interventions. The recommended strategies also differed by team. The nonclinical team suggested programs focused on dispelling vaccination-related myths, and the clinical team suggested campaigns emphasizing the importance of vaccination to protect patients.
PAR methodology was useful to identify innovative and targeted recommendations for increasing vaccine uptake. By involving representative front-line workers, PAR may help medical centers improve influenza vaccination rates across all work groups. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2013;0:1–7)
Changes in the colloid-chemical and photocatalytic properties of titania nanoparticles by attrition milling in the presence of glycine (Gly) and subsequent heat treatment were examined. By milling at 1500 rpm for 6 h, the average particle size was decreased from 123 to 85 nm, with simultaneous decrease in the specific surface area from 35.1 to 23.5 m2/g. Interfacial reactions between titania and Gly were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, from the blue shift of the COO− related vibrational bands by 25 cm−1, relative to the same band from the pristine Gly. The bimodal N1s x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy peak similar to that from the reported titania—amino acid complex is another indication of the complex formation with the participation of nitrogen. When the dispersion was dried and calcined at 500 °C in air, the powder exhibited pale yellow color. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy showed significant visible light absorption, suggesting nitrogen incorporation into titania. The fired product showed high photocatalytic antibacterial activity by irradiation of blue light centered at around 440 nm, using Escherichia coli as a specimen of bacterial species. Thus, the present Gly-modified titania nanoparticles could be used for eliminating indoor bacteria under soft blue illumination. The series of interfacial chemical processes involved are also discussed.
We tested the effects of seeding date and weed control during switchgrass establishment in a field experiment that was conducted in central Pennsylvania in 2007 and repeated in 2008. Switchgrass was no-till seeded in early May, late May, and mid-June, and three postemergence weed management treatments were evaluated, including Mow (only a single mowing), Broadleaf (2,4-D + dicamba), and Broad Spectrum (2,4-D + dicamba + atrazine + quinclorac). Switchgrass density increased at later seeding dates, except in 2008, when the middle seeding date had the lowest density. In both years, weed biomass in late summer was lowest in the last seeding date of the Broad Spectrum treatment. In contrast, switchgrass biomass in late summer was greatest in the first seeding date of the Broad Spectrum treatment in both years. In the year after establishment (production year), plots were split to test the effects of supplemental weed control, composed of metsulfuron + 2,4-D applied in May, on total aboveground yield. Supplemental control in the production year increased total aboveground yield in the Mow treatment only, indicating that effective weed control during the establishment year might reduce the need for weed control in the following year. Although maximum aboveground yield was achieved when switchgrass was seeded in May and herbicides were used, results from our experiment suggest that seeding switchgrass at a relatively high seeding rate in June in our study region and mowing annual weeds to reduce competition and prevent seed production could be an effective strategy if minimizing herbicide use is a priority.
We conducted a field experiment in 2007 and 2008 and repeated it in a separate field in 2008 and 2009 to test the effectiveness of two herbicides applied at two different times on weed control during switchgrass establishment. At 4 and 6 wk after switchgrass planting (WAP), sulfosulfuron was applied at 0.04 and 0.07 kg ai ha−1 with nonionic surfactant and quinclorac was applied at 0.28, 0.42, and 0.56 kg ai ha−1 with methylated seed oil. Herbicides applied at 4 WAP tended to be more effective than at 6 WAP. Sulfosulfuron provided greater control of smooth pigweed; however, quinclorac provided greater control of yellow foxtail, a grass weed that has traditionally been difficult to control with herbicides in switchgrass. Average yellow foxtail control was 73, 87, and 93% for quinclorac at 0.28, 0.42, and 0.56 kg ha−1, respectively, compared to 62 and 60% for sulfosulfuron at 0.04 and 0.07 kg ha−1, respectively. Switchgrass injury (chlorosis and height reduction relative to the untreated control) was observed, but most symptoms were not detectable by 8 wk after treatment (WAT) for most treatments. Plots that received quinclorac at 0.56 kg ha−1 at 6 WAP tended to have relatively low weed biomass and high total aboveground yield in the establishment year and relatively high total aboveground yield in the year after establishment.
Large-scale events may overwhelm the capacity of even the most advanced emergency medical systems. When patient volume outweighs the number of available emergency medical services (EMS) providers, a mass-casualty incident may require the aid of non-medical volunteers. These individuals may be utilized to perform field disaster triage, lessening the burden on EMS personnel.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of triage decisions made by newly enrolled first-year medical students after receiving a brief educational intervention.
A total of 315 first-year medical students from two successive classes participated in START triage training and completed a paper-based triage exercise as part of orientation. This questionnaire consisted of 15 clinical scenarios providing brief but sufficient details for prioritization. Subjects assigned each scenario a triage category of Red, Yellow, Green, or Black, based on the START protocol and were allowed four minutes to complete the exercise. Participants from the Class of 2009 were provided with printed START reference cards, while those from the Class of 2008 were not. Two test types varying in the order of patient age values were created to determine whether patient age was a factor in triage assessment.
The mean accuracy score of triage assignment by medical student volunteers after a brief START training session was 64.3%. The overall rate of over-triage was 17.8%, compared to an under-triage rate of 12.6%. There were no significant differences in triage accuracy between subjects with and without printed materials (63.9% vs. 64.6%, p = 0.729) or those completing the age-variant test types (64.4% vs. 64.1%, p = 0.889).
First-year medical students who received brief START training achieved triage accuracy scores similar to those of emergency physicians, registered nurses, and paramedics in previous studies. Observed rates of underand over-triage suggest that a need exists for improving the accuracy of triage decisions made by medical and non-medical personnel. This study did not find that printed materials significantly improved triage accuracy, nor did it find that patient age affected the ability of participants to correctly assign triage categories. Future research might further evaluate disaster triage by non-medical volunteers.
Recent events have heightened awareness of disaster health issues and the need to prepare the health workforce to plan for and respond to major incidents. This has been reinforced at an international level by the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine, which has proposed an international educational framework.
The aim of this paper is to outline the development of a national educational framework for disaster health in Australia.
The framework was developed on the basis of the literature and the previous experience of members of a National Collaborative for Disaster Health Education and Research. The Collaborative was brought together in a series of workshops and teleconferences, utilizing a modified Delphi technique to finalize the content at each level of the framework and to assign a value to the inclusion of that content at the various levels.
The framework identifies seven educational levels along with educational outcomes for each level. The framework also identifies the recommended contents at each level and assigns a rating of depth for each component. The framework is not intended as a detailed curriculum, but rather as a guide for educationalists to develop specific programs at each level.
This educational framework will provide an infrastructure around which future educational programs in Disaster Health in Australia may be designed and delivered. It will permit improved articulation for students between the various levels and greater consistency between programs so that operational responders may have a consistent language and operational approach to the management of major events.
Epitaxial graphene (EG) grown on the carbon-face of SiC has been shown to exhibit higher carrier mobilities in comparison to other growth techniques amenable to wafer-scale graphene fabrication. The transfer of large area (>mm2) graphene films to substrates amenable for specific applications is desirable. We demonstrate the dry transfer of EG from the C-face of 4H-SiC onto SiO2, GaN and Al2O3 substrates via two approaches using either 1) thermal release tape or 2) a spin-on, chemically-etchable dielectric. Van der Pauw devices fabricated from C-face EG transferred to SiO2 gave similar mobility values and up to three fold reductions in carrier density in comparison to devices fabricated on as-grown material.
Restorative care attempts to break the cycle of dependency and functional decline in nursing homes by addressing individual resident needs. The Restorative Care Education and Training (RCET) Program consists of a five-week workshop and resource manual for both supervisory and direct care staff. This paper describes the RCET approach and presents the implementation, process, and quasi-experimental outcome evaluation findings with 42 residents from six intervention sites and six “wait-list” facilities who received usual care. Baseline data supported the fact that staff primarily targeted residents with substantial functional impairments. Over four months, residents who received restorative care improved significantly on several functional outcome indicators, while the comparison sample declined in several areas of functioning. Interviews with facility directors and participating staff provided direction for modifying the RCET and insight regarding opportunities and challenges when implementing restorative care activities in nursing homes.
MOCVD templates grown on sapphire with a Gallium Treatment Step (GTS) instead of a low temperature AlN or GaN nucleation layer are used for HVPE growth. Four templates are used with varying times of MOCVD buffer layer growth. 25 μm GaN is grown with HVPE on these templates. The HVPE layers are studied with optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the thickness of the buffer layer is not important for the quality of the HVPE grown layer once sufficient nucleation sites for HVPE growth are present. The excellent quality of the templates with GTS for HVPE growth is shown with a 100 μm thick HVPE layer on a 2” template. No cracks in either sapphire or GaN are visible.
Epitaxial ScxGa1-xN films of low Sc concentration (x = 0.08 ± 0.01) were deposited on MOCVD-grown GaN films (using an Al2O3 substrate) at 800°C using molecular beam epitaxy employing ammonia as a reactive nitrogen source (NH3-MBE). The strain-free lattice parameters of the films were determined using a method based on high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) in conjunction with an in-situ elastic tester. It is found that the c:a lattice parameter ratio increases slightly and that the Poisson’s ratio decreases with increasing Sc concentration. The crystalline quality and long-range ordering of the ScxGa1-xN films (as indicated by HRXRD peak intensities and full width at half maximum values) is improved considerably relative to the GaN template. Our results indicate that threading dislocations do not propagate effectively into the ScxGa1-xN films and that these may therefore potentially find application as dislocation blocking layers in GaN-based optoelectronic devices.
The purpose of this study was to examine the independent
and interactive effects of HIV-1 serostatus and cocaine
on neuropsychological (NP) performance in a sample of 237
gay and bisexual urban-dwelling African American men. Consistent
with current evidence, it was expected that the greatest
neuropsychological performance deficits would be evident
(1) in the symptomatic seropositives (SSPs), especially
in domains affected by HIV (i.e., memory and psychomotor
speed), and on tests that are sensitive to subtle slowing;
(2) in those who are recent and frequent cocaine abusers;
and (3) in those who are both HIV seropositive and cocaine
abusers. Multivariate analyses controlling for age and
alcohol use confirmed expectations, with symptomatic seropositives
(SSPs) evidencing significantly poorer psychomotor speed
than the seronegatives (SNs), and slower reaction time
and poorer nonverbal memory than the asymptomatic seropositives
(ASPs). Moderate to heavy recent cocaine use was associated
with slower psychomotor speed. However, contrary to expectations,
no interaction of serostatus and cocaine was noted for
any NP domain, and the expected serostatus and cocaine
effects on verbal memory and frontal systems were not obtained.
Level of alcohol consumption exacerbated the detrimental
effects of HIV-1 on a computerized reaction time test which
is especially sensitive to subtle slowing. This study provides
one of the first descriptions of the neuropsychological
effects of HIV–AIDS in a noninjection drug-using
community sample of gay and bisexual African American men.
(JINS, 2000, 6, 322–335.)
An oceanic general circulation model, previously used to simulate the conditions associated with the Holocene Sapropel S1, is used to simulate the effects of a climate deterioration (represented as a cooling event) on the sapropelic circulation mode. The enhanced cooling (2°–3°C) induces deep convection in the Adriatic and the Gulf of Lions and intermediate water formation in the Aegean, where in all cases there had previously been only stagnant unventilated waters. The depths of ventilation (to ∼1250 m) are in agreement with core data from this period. The short decadal timescales involved in modifying the sapropelic circulation suggest that such a climatic deterioration may be associated with the interruption of S1 between 7100 and 6900 14C yr B.P., which divided the sapropel into two subunits.
The emergence of new obstetrical and neonatal technologies,
as well as more aggressive clinical management, has significantly
improved the survival of extremely low birth weight (ELBW)
infants. This development has heightened concerns about
the limits of viability. ELBW infants, weighing less than
1,000 grams and no larger than the palm of one's hand,
are often described as “miracles” of late twentieth
century technology. Improved survivability of ELBW infants
has provided opportunities for long-term follow-up. Information
on their physical and emotional development contributes
to developing standards of practice regarding their care.