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Parent and child mental health has suffered during the pandemic and transition phase. Structured and shared parenting may be intervention targets beneficial to families who are struggling with parent or child mental health challenges.
First, we investigated associations between structured and shared parenting and parent depression symptoms. Second, we investigated associations between structured and shared parenting and depression, hyperactivity/inattention and irritability symptoms in children.
A total of 1027 parents in two-parent households (4797 observations total; 85.1% mothers) completed online surveys about themselves and their children (aged 2–18 years) from April 2020 to July 2022. Structured parenting and shared parenting responsibilities were assessed from April 2020 to November 2021. Symptoms of parent depression, child depression, child hyperactivity and inattention, child irritability, and child emotional and conduct problems were assessed repeatedly (one to 14 times; median of four times) from April 2020 to July 2022.
Parents who reported higher levels of shared parenting responsibilities had lower depression symptoms (β = −0.09 to −0.32, all P < 0.01) longitudinally. Parents who reported higher levels of shared parenting responsibilities had children with fewer emotional problems (ages 2–5 years; β = −0.07, P < 0.05), fewer conduct problems (ages 2–5 years; β = −0.09, P < 0.01) and less irritability (ages 13–18 years; β = −0.27, P < 0.001) longitudinally. Structured parenting was associated with fewer conduct problems (ages 2–5 years; β = −0.05, P < 0.05).
Shared parenting is beneficial for parent and child mental health, even under chaotic or inflexible life conditions. Structured parenting is beneficial for younger children.
To review the deaths of children and young people who took their own life. We conducted a retrospective analysis of serious incident reports from a National Health Service trust and reviews by the child death overview panels of the local safeguarding children boards.
We identified 23 deaths, with annual rates varying considerably between local authorities and over time. Over half of the children (n = 13, 56%) were not known to specialist child and adolescent mental health services, with 11 having no contact with any agency at the time of their death. Hanging was the most common method (n = 20, 87%) and of these, half (n =11, 55%) were low-level hangings.
Training is required to improve awareness, recognition and the assessment of children at risk of taking their own life. Specialist child mental health services should directly assess plans or attempts at hanging and offer advice about the seriousness of attempting this. National data (by age) on children and young people who take their own life should be routinely published to inform clinical and preventive services.
This article reports on research which seeks to compare and measure the similarities between phonetic transcriptions in the analysis of relationships between varieties of English. It addresses the question of whether these varieties have been converging, diverging, or maintaining equilibrium as a result of endogenous and exogenous phonetic and phonological changes. We argue that it is only possible to identify such patterns of change by the simultaneous comparison of a wide range of varieties of a language across a data set that has not been specifically selected to highlight those changes that are believed to be important. Our analysis suggests that although there has been an obvious reduction in regional variation with the loss of traditional dialects of English and Scots, there has not been any significant convergence (or divergence) of regional accents of English in recent decades, despite the rapid spread of a number of features such as TH-fronting.
In reviewing the development of mental health interest in and research about disasters, there are many seminal studies and publications, building progressively in their contributions to the science of disaster field. The field of disaster mental health research emerged from inquiries into the phenomena associated with the mental health impacts of war. Mental health aspects of disasters became a more specific focus during the 1970s and 1980s. Interventions have been a focus of review in terms of current knowledge, effective models, and the need for research and evaluation of interventions that are provided. Resilience has long been recognized by trauma experts, though they acknowledge it may coexist with painful emotional scars. Researchers across the globe have contributed to the expanding science of disaster mental health. A number of studies focused on the stressor components, particularly those related to psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Linguists are able to describe, transcribe, and classify the differences and similarities between accents formally and precisely, but there has until very recently been no reliable and objective way of measuring degrees of difference. It is one thing to say how varieties are similar, but quite another to assess how similar they are. On the other hand, there has recently been a strong focus in historical linguistics on the development of quantitative methods for comparing and classifying languages; but these have tended to be applied to problems of language family membership, at rather high levels in the family tree, not down at the level of individual accents. In this article, we outline our attempts to address the question of relative similarity of accents using quantitative methods. We illustrate our method for measuring phonetic similarity in a sample of cognate words for a number of (mainly British) varieties of English, and show how these results can be displayed using newer and more innovative network diagrams, rather than trees. We consider some applications of these methods in tracking ongoing changes in English and beyond, and discuss future prospects.
To determine the natural history of colonization with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and resistant gram-negative bacilli among long-term–care facility (LTCF) residents.
Observational cohort study.
A 355-bed LTCF with a ventilator unit and a subacute unit.
Residents with colonization or infection with VRE, MRSA or resistant gram-negative bacilli housed at the LTCF between December 1,1999, and February 29, 2000.
Cultures of clinical and surveillance sites were performed at regular intervals. Charts were reviewed for clinical characteristics associated with clearance of colonization. Kaplan–Meier curves were constructed to analyze the number of days to clearance of colonization.
Forty-nine residents had 65 episodes of colonization (27 VRE, 30 MRSA and 8 resistant gram-negative bacilli). Eighteen (28%) of the episodes cleared. The clearance rate was 2.7 episodes per 1,000 person-days. Clearance occurred significantly more often with resistant gram-negative bacilli colonization compared with VRE or MRSA colonization (6 [75%] vs 12 [21%]; P = .007; relative risk, 4.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.26 to 11.8). There was a trend toward longer use of antimicrobial agents among residents with persistent colonization. Infections occurred most frequently with MRSA The urinary tract was the most common site of infection.
Among LTCF residents, colonization with resistant gram-negative bacilli is four times more likely to clear than colonization with VRE or MRSA. Performance of surveillance cultures at regular intervals may reduce the need for contact precautions for LTCF residents with resistant gram-negative bacilli colonization.
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