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We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) increases energy expenditure by dissipating chemical energy as heat. The combustion of glucose and lipids produces beneficial metabolic effects and renders BAT an attractive target to battle obesity and associated diseases. The majority of adults do not display active BAT on positron emission tomography (PET) without prior cold exposure. Interestingly, a fraction of individuals with BAT positive PET scans exhibits excessive BAT (eBAT) activity, indicating a possible underlying genetic contributor. We aim to identify genetic determinants of BAT activity by studying individuals with eBAT activity using next-generation sequencing. A cellular model will be used to validate variants and perform in-depth pathway analysis. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We performed a retrospective review of PET scans over a period of 12 months in patients presenting with suspected or diagnosed cancer (n=20,348). The distribution of BAT positive individuals (n=1251) was used to implement a threshold to define eBAT activity. Samples from prospectively recruited individuals with BAT activity above the threshold will undergo whole exome sequencing. Variants associated with eBAT activity will be engineered into an immortalized BAT cell line using CRISPR to validate results and perform in-depth pathway analysis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We expect to identify genetic variants associated with eBAT. Studying the effects of these variants on thermogenesis followed by in-depth pathway analysis in genetically engineered cellular and mouse models may enable us to find new regulators of BAT activity. These findings may eventually contribute to the development of new drugs targeting obesity and its sequelae. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The contribution of genetic factors to individual BAT activity is currently unknown. Identifying individuals with eBAT on PET scans and studying the underlying genetic determinants may provide the foundation for the discovery of new pathways for BAT activation.
All living things come in contact with radiation; most radiation exposure does not cause harmful complications. Certain types of radiation, specifically ionizing radiation, provide useful interventions in cancer treatment. This type of radiation provokes cellular injury from which normal tissue recovers more effectively than malignant tissue.
Radiation may be provided from isotopes such as radium, iridium, and cesium. Machines such as the linear accelerator or the betatron also create therapeutic forms of radiation which are important in cancer management. Terms used in the discussion of radiation are defined in Box 28.1. This chapter will describe treatment mechanisms and complications of radiation therapy in gynecologic malignancies. Cervical and endometrial cancers are the most commonly treated gynecologic cancers, but radiation also has a role in the management of leiomyosarcoma and vulvar cancers. There is no role for radiation therapy in the management of ovarian cancers due to the effects of radiation on the bowel.
Box 28.1 Terms Used in Discussion of Radiation
X-rays – a form of electromagnetic radiation. X-rays are emitted by electrons.
Gamma rays – these radiations originate from the decay of an atomic nucleus. The wavelengths of gamma rays are typically longer than the wavelengths of x-rays, but some types of gamma rays used in radiation therapy are also referred to as x-rays.
Photon – the elementary particle of ionizing radiation. Gamma rays and x-rays are both considered photons.
Ionization – this process occurs when an atom or proton gains or loses an electron; it thus forms an ion and becomes either negatively or positively charged.
Ionizing radiation – a form of radiation that is harmful to living tissue because it disrupts molecular bonds through the process of ionization.
Scope of the Problem
The most common gynecologic cancers treated by radiation therapy are cervical cancer and endometrial cancer. In early stages, surgery alone may be selected while in other stages the patient may be treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, or with both chemotherapy and radiation. In the most advanced cases, radiation therapy may be used alone. The effects on normal surrounding tissues usually limit the dose of radiation. The sigmoid, the recto sigmoid, and the rectum are the most susceptible pelvic organs to radiation injury. The small bowel also limits radiation dose.
One of the chief promises of the emerging history of capitalism is its capacity to problematize and historicize relationships between economic inequality and capital's social, political, and ecological domain. At their best, the new works creatively integrate multiple historiographic approaches. Scholars are bringing the insights of social and cultural history to business history's traditional actors and topics, providing thick descriptions of the complex social worlds of firms, investors, and bankers, while resisting rationalist, functionalist, and economistic analyses. They are also proceeding from the assumption that capitalism is not reducible to the people that historians have typically designated as capitalists. As they've shown, the fact that slaves, women, sharecroppers, clerks, and industrial laborers were, to different degrees, denied power in the building of American capitalism did not mean that they were absent from its web, or that their actions did not decisively shape its particular contours.
The Transitions of Care from Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services to Adult Mental Health Services (TRACK) study was a multistage, multicentre study of adolescents' transitions between child and adult mental health services undertaken in England. We conducted a secondary analysis of the TRACK study data to investigate healthcare provision for young people (n = 64) with ongoing mental health needs, who were not transferred from child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) to adult mental health services mental health services (AMHS).
The most common outcomes were discharge to a general practitioner (GP; n =29) and ongoing care with CAMHS (n = 13), with little indication of use of third-sector organisations. Most of these young people had emotional/neurotic disorders (n = 31, 48.4%) and neurodevelopmental disorders (n = 15, 23.4%).
GPs and CAMHS are left with the responsibility for the continuing care of young people for whom no adult mental health service could be identified. GPs may not be able to offer the skilled ongoing care that these young people need. Equally, the inability to move them decreases the capacity of CAMHS to respond to new referrals and may leave some young people with only minimal support.
The segregated diners along Maryland's Route 40 were always somebody's problem – mothers packing sandwiches for a daytrip to the nation's capital, Jim Crow on their minds – but they were not always John F. Kennedy's problem. That changed in the early 1960s, when African diplomats began arriving to the United States to present their credentials to the United Nations and the White House. Between the high-modernist universalism of the former and the neo-classical, republican universalism of the latter, at just about the place where ambassadors got hungry, lay a scattering of gaudy, ramshackle restaurants straddling an otherwise bleak stretch of highway. As the motoring diplomats discovered to their shock, the diners excluded black people in ways that turned out to be global: whatever their importance to US foreign policy, African economic ministers and cultural attaches received no diplomatic immunity.
The incoming Kennedy administration soon confronted an international scandal, as the officials filed formal complaints and US and overseas editors ran with the story. “Human faces, black-skinned and white, angry words and a humdrum reach of U. S. highway,” read an article in Life, “these are the raw stuff of a conflict that reached far out from America in to the world.” Kennedy, reluctant to engage the black freedom struggle except where it intersected with Cold War concerns, established an Office of the Special Protocol Service to mediate: its staff caught flak, spoke to newspapers, and sat down with Route 40's restaurateurs, diner by diner, making the case that serving black people was in the United States’ global interests. High-level officials argued for the desegregating of Maryland's public accommodations for both visiting dignitaries and African Americans. “Let me say with a Georgia accent,” stated Secretary of State Dean Rusk, “that we cannot solve this problem if it requires a diplomatic passport to claim the rights of an American citizen.” In the context of Cold War rivalry and African decolonization, Route 40's petty apartheid was no longer just its own. Racialized power had a geopolitics; one that had suddenly brought the President to within two degrees of separation from the owners of the Double-T Diner.
This chapter explores intersections between the politics of racialized difference and the United States’ geopolitical histories, and the rich varieties of ways that historians have mapped them.
Dementia cases are increasing worldwide; thus, investigators seek to identify interventions that might prevent or ameliorate cognitive decline in later life. Extensive research confirms the benefits of physical exercise for brain health, yet only a fraction of older adults exercise regularly. Interactive mental and physical exercise, as in aerobic exergaming, not only motivates, but has also been found to yield cognitive benefit above and beyond traditional exercise. This pilot study sought to investigate whether greater cognitive challenge while exergaming would yield differential outcomes in executive function and generalize to everyday functioning. Sixty-four community based older adults (mean age=82) were randomly assigned to pedal a stationary bike, while interactively engaging on-screen with: (1) a low cognitive demand task (bike tour), or (2) a high cognitive demand task (video game). Executive function (indices from Trails, Stroop and Digit Span) was assessed before and after a single-bout and 3-month exercise intervention. Significant group × time interactions were found after a single-bout (Color Trails) and after 3 months of exergaming (Stroop; among 20 adherents). Those in the high cognitive demand group performed better than those in the low cognitive dose condition. Everyday function improved across both exercise conditions. Pilot data indicate that for older adults, cognitive benefit while exergaming increased concomitantly with higher doses of interactive mental challenge. (JINS, 2015, 21, 768–779)
By most measures, Daniel Augustus Tompkins was a highly unlikely opponent of totalized Chinese exclusion. The owner of three cotton mills and a New South booster editor, Tompkins presided over a racially segregated labor force and had much to say about the necessity of white supremacy for the progress of the South, the nation, and the world. So why, on March 14, 1906, did he testify before the U.S. House of Representatives' Committee on Foreign Affairs, expressing his opposition to immigration officials' overzealous enforcement of legal barriers against Chinese immigration? Existing approaches to the racial politics of migration to the United States, which have emphasized the interchangeability of anti-black and anti-Chinese racisms in the nineteenth century, make it difficult to account for Tompkins' actions: they would lead us to expect that he would defend both complete Chinese exclusion and black subordination on similar racial grounds. This essay presents a new framework for conceptualizing migration, empire, and the politics of social differentiation that, among other things, will make sense of this seemingly unlikely intervention by a New South industrialist and racial ideologue in U.S. immigration politics. This framework brings together two traditionally separated fields of inquiry: migration history and imperial history. By revisiting Chinese exclusion (and its seemingly odd critics) through an imperial lens, it hopes to demonstrate the value—indeed, the necessity—of connecting these two approaches in the larger effort to entangle U.S. and global histories.
Electron correlation microscopy (ECM) is a new technique that utilizes time-resolved coherent electron nanodiffraction to study dynamic atomic rearrangements in materials. It is the electron scattering equivalent of photon correlation spectroscopy with the added advantage of nanometer-scale spatial resolution. We have applied ECM to a Pd40Ni40P20 metallic glass, heated inside a scanning transmission electron microscope into a supercooled liquid to measure the structural relaxation time τ between the glass transition temperature Tg and the crystallization temperature, Tx. τ determined from the mean diffraction intensity autocorrelation function g2(t) decreases with temperature following an Arrhenius relationship between Tg and Tg+25 K, and then increases as temperature approaches Tx. The distribution of τ determined from the g2(t) of single speckles is broad and changes significantly with temperature.
Transfer of care from one healthcare provider to another is often understood as a suboptimal version of the process of transition.
To separate and evaluate concepts of transfer and transition between child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) and adult mental health services (AMHS).
In a retrospective case-note survey of young people reaching the upper age boundary at six English CAMHS, optimal transition was evaluated using four criteria: continuity of care, parallel care, a transition planning meeting and information transfer.
Of 154 cases, 76 transferred to AMHS. Failure to transfer resulted mainly from non-referral by CAMHS (n = 12) and refusal by service users (n = 12) rather than refusal by AMHS (n = 7). Four cases met all criteria for optimal transition, 13 met none; continuity of care in(n = 63) was met most often.
Transfer was common but good transition rare. Reasons for failure to transfer differ from barriers to transition. Transfer should be investigated alongside transition in research and service development.
We compared neuropsychological profiles in children with shunted hydrocephalus secondary to aqueductal stenosis (AS), a rare form of congenital hydrocephalus, and spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM), a common form of congenital hydrocephalus. Participants were 180 children with shunted hydrocephalus grouped according to etiology: SBM (n = 151), AS (n = 29), and typically developing (TD; n = 60) individuals. The group with AS performed below the TD group on all tasks except for reading, and their overall performance was higher than the group with SBM, who had the lowest performance in the sample. Both clinical groups significantly differed from the TD group on tasks of spatial function, concept formation, motor function, and memory. Performance of the subgroup of AS children with normal cerebellum status approximated that of the TD group, while those with cerebellar anomalies performed lower than others with AS. Cerebellar abnormalities (present in the whole SBM group and in a subset of the AD group) are associated with more compromise of cognitive as well as motor function. (JINS, 2012, 18, 1–10)
The discovery of a pulsar or pulsars orbiting near the Galactic Center (GC) could offer an unprecedented probe of strong-field gravity, the properties of our galaxy's supermassive black hole and insights into the paradoxical star formation history of the region. However, searching for pulsars near the GC is severely hampered by the large electron densities along our line of sight and the scattering-induced pulse broadening of the pulsar emission observed through it. As the broadened pulse length approaches the pulsar period, the periodicity in pulsar emission becomes nearly undetectable. Searches extended to higher frequencies, in an effort to reduce scattering, suffer from reduced intrinsic flux, higher system temperatures and increased atmospheric opacity. We are currently attempting to mitigate the challenges associated with searching for pulsars near the GC by employing new wide bandwidth receivers, upgraded IF distribution systems and novel digital spectrometers in a GC pulsar search campaign at the Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia, USA.
Our search will cover two frequency bands, from 12-15 GHz (Ku Band) and 18-26 GHz (K Band), during a total of approximately 30 hours of observations, with expected characteristic 10-sigma sensitivities between 5-10 micro-Jy. Our first observations are scheduled for mid-March 2012. Here we will present the status of our observations and initial results.
Corpus callosum malformation and dysfunction are increasingly recognized causes of cognitive and behavioral disability. Individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) offer unique insights regarding the cognitive skills that depend specifically upon callosal connectivity. We examined the impact of AgCC on cognitive inhibition, flexibility, and processing speed using the Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT) and Trail Making Test (TMT) from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. We compared 36 individuals with AgCC and IQs within the normal range to 56 matched controls. The AgCC cohort was impaired on timed measures of inhibition and flexibility; however, group differences on CWIT Inhibition, CWIT Inhibition/Switching and TMT Number-Letter Switching appear to be largely explained by slow performance in basic operations such as color naming and letter sequencing. On CWIT Inhibition/Switching, the AgCC group was found to commit significantly more errors which suggests that slow performance is not secondary to a cautious strategy. Therefore, while individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum show real deficits on tasks of executive function, this impairment appears to be primarily a consequence of slow cognitive processing. Additional studies are needed to investigate the impact of AgCC on other aspects of higher order cortical function. (JINS, 2012, 18, 521–529)
Behavioral dysregulation is a common and detrimental consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children that contributes to poor academic achievement and deficits in social development. Unfortunately, behavioral dysregulation is difficult to predict from either injury severity or early neuropsychological evaluation. The uncinate fasciculus (UF) connects orbitofrontal and anterior temporal lobes, which are commonly implicated in emotional and behavioral regulation. Using probabilistic diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), we examined the relationship between the integrity of the UF 3 months post-injury and ratings of executive functions 12 months post-injury in children with moderate to severe TBI and a comparison group with orthopedic injuries. As expected, fractional anisotropy of the UF was lower in the TBI group relative to the orthopedic injury group. DTT metrics from the UF served as a biomarker and predicted ratings of emotional and behavior regulation, but not metacognition. In contrast, the Glasgow Coma Scale score was not related to either UF integrity or to executive function outcomes. Neuroanatomical biomarkers like the uncinate fasciculus may allow for early identification of behavioral problems and allow for investigation into the relationship of frontotemporal networks to brain-behavior relationships. (JINS, 2011, 17, 663–673)
Many adolescents with mental health problems experience transition of care from child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) to adult mental health services (AMHS).
As part of the TRACK study we evaluated the process, outcomes and user and carer experience of transition from CAMHS to AMHS.
We identified a cohort of service users crossing the CAMHS/AMHS boundary over 1 year across six mental health trusts in England. We tracked their journey to determine predictors of optimal transition and conducted qualitative interviews with a subsample of users, their carers and clinicians on how transition was experienced.
Of 154 individuals who crossed the transition boundary in 1 year, 90 were actual referrals (i.e. they made a transition to AMHS), and 64 were potential referrals (i.e. were either not referred to AMHS or not accepted by AMHS). Individuals with a history of severe mental illness, being on medication or having been admitted were more likely to make a transition than those with neurodevelopmental disorders, emotional/neurotic disorders and emerging personality disorder. Optimal transition, defined as adequate transition planning, good information transfer across teams, joint working between teams and continuity of care following transition, was experienced by less than 5% of those who made a transition. Following transition, most service users stayed engaged with AMHS and reported improvement in their mental health.
For the vast majority of service users, transition from CAMHS to AMHS is poorly planned, poorly executed and poorly experienced. The transition process accentuates pre-existing barriers between CAMHS and AMHS.