Ground granulated blast-furnace slag was reacted in 5 M (pH 14.7) and 1.5 M (pH 14.2) NaOH solutions at a water/slag ratio of ∼0.4, and characterized by unconfined compressive strength testing, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The reacted material consisted of a dense layered matrix interspersed with unreacted glass particles and regions of reaction products with higher porosity. CSH(I) and (C, M)4AH13 were identified by x-ray diffraction. The C-S-H (calcium silicate hydrate) phase is proposed to consist mainly of structurally imperfect layers of tobermorite, interleaved with layers of (C, M)4AH13. Other cations, most significantly Na+, are incorporated into the structure. Use of the highly concentrated solution (5 M) produced a higher degree of reaction and, consequently, higher compressive strength (38 MPa after 28 days for 5 M solution vs 21 MPa for 1.5 M).