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The Epirote port of Butrint (now in Albania) features significantly in the neo-Latin epic, the Carlias, by the Florentine Ugolino Verino (1438–1516). This poem was recast on the occasion of the invasion of Italy by Charles VIII of France, to encourage the young king to imitate his ancestor, Charlemagne, and undertake a crusade. This essay focuses upon the poetic description of Butrint in the light of recent excavations. It reconstructs the run-down character of this fortified Venetian town, as well as the material living conditions of its occupants in 1493. The essay considers how Verino's narrative was shaped by literary sources, rather than the actual circumstances of the port.
This paper demonstrates that although modern BMIs in the US have increased, 19th century BMIs in Philadelphia were lower than elsewhere within Pennsylvania, indicating that urbanization and agricultural commercialization were associated with lower BMIs. After controlling for stature, blacks consistently had greater BMI values than mulattos and whites; therefore, there is no evidence of a 19th century mulatto BMI advantage in the industrializing North. Farmers' BMIs were consistently heavier than those of non-farmers.
The Diploma examination of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (hereafter referred to by its common acronym: DRCOG) is designed for UK-based general practitioners (hereafter GP or GPs). Although suitable for supporting GPs' general medical knowledge and practice, the DRCOG is particularly useful for GPs wishing to offer obstetric, gynaecological and other aspects of women's healthcare in a primary healthcare setting, such as GP surgeries, walk-in centres and family-planning clinics. The DRCOG is not a mandatory qualification but it remains popular as evidence that Diplomates have an interest and some skill in the specialty. In addition, the DRCOG has a value in helping Diplomates to find good GP posts or partnerships. However, it must be emphasised that the DRCOG is not a specialist qualification and it is not relevant to competition for specialist training posts in obstetrics and gynaecology. More widely for the College, the DRCOG aims to support the College's core mission of ‘Setting standards to improve women's health’. It is of paramount importance that women and unborn babies receive accurate, sensitive and skilled care from their GPs. The DRCOG examination therefore plays a vital role in setting and maintaining standards in this key area of primary care.
The syllabus is an outline of the main points of the curriculum and is designed to aid your learning for the DRCOG examination. The syllabus is correct at the time of publication but may change with time. An updated version of the syllabus will be available on the RCOG website (www.rcog.org.uk)
The syllabus is also divided into seven modules based upon the curriculum.
Module 1: Basic clinical skills
You will be expected to understand the patterns of symptoms in women presenting with obstetric problems, gynaecological problems, sexually transmitted infections and patients in a family planning setting.
You will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of the patho-physiological basis of physical signs and understand the indications, risks, benefits and effectiveness of investigations in a clinical setting.
You will be required to demonstrate an understanding of the components of effective verbal and nonverbal communication.
You will need to be aware of relevant ethical and legal issues including the implications of the legal status of the unborn child, the legal issues relating to medical certification and issues related to medical confidentiality. You will be expected to understand the issues surrounding consent in all clinical situations including postmortem examination and termination of pregnancy.
The DRCOG (Diploma) is an examination for doctors who wish to offer obstetrics, gynaecology and other aspects of women's health care in a primary care setting (GP surgeries, walk-in centres and family planning clinics). This book provides a comprehensive guide to the new style DRCOG examination which was introduced in October 2007. It includes:an overview of the curriculum and syllabusa guide to the format of the DRCOG examinationsample questions for each of the question formats: extended matching questions (EMQs), single best answer questions (SBAs) and multiple choice questions (MCQs)six sample papersanswers to all of the sample questions and paperstips for candidates.
The DRCOG examination consists of two papers, the second of which is a 40-question MCQ paper with each question having five twigs to be answered True or False in 90 minutes.
There is no negative marking and so it advisable for candidates to answer all the questions, taking a guess at those of which they are unsure.
The paper is standard set and therefore has a variable pass mark, according to the difficulty of the paper and the standard setting principles and procedures described earlier (see Chapter 4).
The next two chapters contains practice papers. We have made every effort to ensure that these questions will be of a standard similar to that which you are likely to encounter in the examination. Once again, it is important to emphasise that the curriculum and syllabus will enable you to focus your learning on those subjects that are relevant to the UK-based GP. It is unlikely that you will be expected to have knowledge relevant to hospital-based practice unless the examiners consider it relevant, in which case it will be included in the curriculum and syllabus. For example, the examiners will not expect you to know the anatomy of the ureter but they may ask a question about the risk of injury to the ureter associated with hysterectomy, since a GP would be expected of to recognise or consider this complication of gynaecological surgery.