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CVD is the leading cause of death worldwide. Diet is a key modifiable component in the development of CVD. No official UK diet quality index exists for use in UK nutritional epidemiological studies. The aims of this study are to: (i) develop a diet quality index based on components of UK dietary reference values (DRV) and (ii) determine the association between the index, the existing UK nutrient profile (NP) model and a comprehensive range of cardiometabolic risk markers among a British adult population. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from the Airwave Health Monitoring Study (n 5848). Dietary intake was measured by 7-d food diary and metabolic risk using waist circumference, BMI, blood lipid profile, glycated Hb (HbA1c) and blood pressure measurements. Diet quality was assessed using the novel DRV index and NP model. Associations between diet and cardiometabolic risk were analysed via multivariate linear models and logistic regression. A two-point increase in NP score was associated with total cholesterol (β −0·33 mmol/l, P<0·0001) and HbA1c (β −0·01 %, P<0·0001). A two-point increase in DRV score was associated with waist circumference (β −0·56 cm, P<0·0001), BMI (β −0·15 kg/m2, P<0·0001), total cholesterol (β −0·06 mmol/l, P<0·0001) and HbA1c (β −0·02 %, P=0·002). A one-point increase in DRV score was associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) (OR 0·94, P=0·01) and obesity (OR 0·95, P<0·0001). The DRV index is associated with overall diet quality and risk factors for CVD and T2D, supporting its application in nutritional epidemiological studies investigating CVD risk in a UK population.
This study investigated the impact of ACTAZIN™ green (2400 and 600 mg) and Livaux™ (2400 mg) gold kiwifruit supplements on faecal microbial composition and metabolites in healthy and functionally constipated (FC) participants. The participants were recruited into the healthy group (n 20; one of whom did not complete the study) and the FC group (n 9), each of whom consumed all the treatments and a placebo (isomalt) for 4 weeks in a randomised cross-over design interspersed with 2-week washout periods. Modification of faecal microbiota composition and metabolism was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and GC, and colonic pH was calculated using SmartPill® wireless motility capsules. A total of thirty-two taxa were measured at greater than 1 % abundance in at least one sample, ten of which differed significantly between the baseline healthy and FC groups. Specifically, Bacteroidales and Roseburia spp. were significantly more abundant (P < 0·05) in the healthy group and taxa including Ruminococcaceae, Dorea spp. and Akkermansia spp. were significantly more abundant (P < 0·05) in the FC group. In the FC group, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance significantly increased (P = 0·024) from 3·4 to 7·0 % following Livaux™ supplementation, with eight of the nine participants showing a net increase. Lower proportions of F. prausnitzii are often associated with gastrointestinal disorders. The discovery that Livaux™ supplementation increased F. prausnitzii abundance offers a potential strategy for improving gut microbiota composition, as F. prausnitzii is a butyrate producer and has also been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects in many studies.
We present an in-depth study of metal-poor stars, based high resolution spectra combined with newly released astrometric data from Gaia, with special attention to observational uncertainties. The results are compared to those of other studies, including Gaia benchmark stars. Chemical evolution models are discussed, highlighting few puzzles that are still affecting our understanding of stellar nucleosynthesis and of the evolution of our Galaxy.
Aberrant microbiota composition and function have been linked to several pathologies, including type 2 diabetes. In animal models, prebiotics induce favourable changes in the intestinal microbiota, intestinal permeability (IP) and endotoxaemia, which are linked to concurrent improvement in glucose tolerance. This is the first study to investigate the link between IP, glucose tolerance and intestinal bacteria in human type 2 diabetes. In all, twenty-nine men with well-controlled type 2 diabetes were randomised to a prebiotic (galacto-oligosaccharide mixture) or placebo (maltodextrin) supplement (5·5 g/d for 12 weeks). Intestinal microbial community structure, IP, endotoxaemia, inflammatory markers and glucose tolerance were assessed at baseline and post intervention. IP was estimated by the urinary recovery of oral 51Cr-EDTA and glucose tolerance by insulin-modified intravenous glucose tolerance test. Intestinal microbial community analysis was performed by high-throughput next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons and quantitative PCR. Prebiotic fibre supplementation had no significant effects on clinical outcomes or bacterial abundances compared with placebo; however, changes in the bacterial family Veillonellaceae correlated inversely with changes in glucose response and IL-6 levels (r −0·90, P=0·042 for both) following prebiotic intake. The absence of significant changes to the microbial community structure at a prebiotic dosage/length of supplementation shown to be effective in healthy individuals is an important finding. We propose that concurrent metformin treatment and the high heterogeneity of human type 2 diabetes may have played a significant role. The current study does not provide evidence for the role of prebiotics in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
After more than half a century of community support related to the science of “solar activity”, IAU's Commission 10 was formally discontinued in 2015, to be succeeded by C.E2 with the same area of responsibility. On this occasion, we look back at the growth of the scientific disciplines involved around the world over almost a full century. Solar activity and fields of research looking into the related physics of the heliosphere continue to be vibrant and growing, with currently over 2,000 refereed publications appearing per year from over 4,000 unique authors, publishing in dozens of distinct journals and meeting in dozens of workshops and conferences each year. The size of the rapidly growing community and of the observational and computational data volumes, along with the multitude of connections into other branches of astrophysics, pose significant challenges; aspects of these challenges are beginning to be addressed through, among others, the development of new systems of literature reviews, machine-searchable archives for data and publications, and virtual observatories. As customary in these reports, we highlight some of the research topics that have seen particular interest over the most recent triennium, specifically active-region magnetic fields, coronal thermal structure, coronal seismology, flares and eruptions, and the variability of solar activity on long time scales. We close with a collection of developments, discoveries, and surprises that illustrate the range and dynamics of the discipline.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
The effect of the dietary n-3 long-chain PUFA, DHA (22 : 6n-3), on the growth of pre-term infants is controversial. We tested the effect of higher-dose DHA (approximately 1 % dietary fatty acids) on the growth of pre-term infants to 18 months corrected age compared with standard feeding practice (0·2–0·3 % DHA) in a randomised controlled trial. Infants born < 33 weeks gestation (n 657) were randomly allocated to receive breast milk and/or formula with higher DHA or standard DHA according to a concealed schedule stratified for sex and birth-weight ( < 1250 and ≥ 1250 g). The dietary arachidonic acid content of both diets was constant at approximately 0·4 % total fatty acids. The intervention was from day 2 to 5 of life until the infant's expected date of delivery (EDD). Growth was assessed at EDD, and at 4, 12 and 18 months corrected age. There was no effect of higher DHA on weight or head circumference at any age, but infants fed higher DHA were 0·7 cm (95 % CI 0·1, 1·4 cm; P = 0·02) longer at 18 months corrected age. There was an interaction effect between treatment and birth weight strata for weight (P = 0·01) and length (P = 0·04). Higher DHA resulted in increased length in infants born weighing ≥ 1250 g at 4 months corrected age and in both weight and length at 12 and 18 months corrected age. Our data show that DHA up to 1 % total dietary fatty acids does not adversely affect growth.
The Galactic Australian SKA Pathfinder (GASKAP) survey is one of several key science projects with ASKAP, a new radio telescope being built in Australia as a technology demonstrator for the Square Kilometer Array (SKA). GASKAP aims to survey about 12,779 square degrees of the Galaxy and the Magellanic System, at high spectral resolution (0.2 km s−1) and using several wavelengths: the λ21-cm HI line, the λ18-cm OH lines, and the comb of recombination lines around λ18-cm. The area covered by GASKAP includes all of the Galactic plane south of declination +40° with |b| < 10°, selected areas at higher latitudes covering important interstellar clouds in the disk and halo, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, and the Magellanic Bridge and Stream. Compared with previous surveys, GASKAP will achieve an order of magnitude or greater improvement in brightness sensitivity and resolution in various combinations of beam size and mapping speed matched to the astrophysical objectives.
Thirty-eight melon accessions, which are of primary breeding importance in the Ukraine, were analysed for diversity. These collections represent a major non-US and non-western Europe source of melon germplasm that have not yet been subjected to molecular characterization. Molecular diversity was estimated based on a robust set of 465 polymorphisms gathered by amplified fragment length polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats (SSR). In this paper, we report 12 newly developed polymorphic SSR primer pairs, and their use for molecular characterization in the Ukrainian melon collections. Based on these polymorphisms, we estimated similarity indices that ranged from 0.70 to 1.00 among various accessions. The phylogenetic tree based on the similarity indices and a three-dimensional plot of the first three vectors of the principal component analysis corresponded fairly well with the existing three classical morphotypes namely aestivalis, europeus and hiemalis, under the convarEuropeus, which is also known as adana. The polymorphisms generated in the current study, which are specific to the grouping of fruit types and days to maturity will be very useful for further genetic studies and marker-assisted selections.
Partial melting of metapelitic rocks beneath the mafic–ultramafic Rustenburg Layered Suite of the Bushveld Complex in the vicinity of the periclinal Schwerin Fold resulted in a structurally controlled distribution of granitic leucosomes in the upper metamorphic aureole. In the core of the pericline, subvertical structures facilitated the rise of buoyant leucosome through the aureole towards the contact with the Bushveld Complex, with leucosomes accumulating in en-echelon tension gashes. In a subhorizontal syn-metamorphic shear zone to the southeast of the pericline, leucosomes accumulated in subhorizontal dilational structural sites. The kinematics of this shear zone are consistent with slumping of material off the southeastern limb of the rising Schwerin pericline. The syndeformational timing of leucosome emplacement supports a syn-intrusive, density-driven origin for the Schwerin Fold. Modelling of the cooling of the Rustenburg Layered Suite and heating of the floor rocks using a multiple intrusion model indicates that temperatures above the solidus were maintained for >600,000 years up to 300 m from the contact, in agreement with rheological modelling of floor-rock diapirs that indicate growth rates on the order of 8 mm/year for the Schwerin Fold.
Nonadherence to combination antiretroviral (ARV) therapies (cART) is highly prevalent and significantly increases the risk of adverse human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease outcomes. The current study evaluated the hypothesis that prospective memory—a dissociable aspect of episodic memory describing the ability to execute a future intention—plays an important role in successful cART adherence. Seventy-nine individuals with HIV infection who were prescribed at least one ARV medication underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological and neuromedical evaluation prior to completing a 1-month observation of their cART adherence as measured by electronic medication monitoring. Nonadherent individuals (n = 31) demonstrated significantly poorer prospective memory functioning as compared to adherent persons (n = 48), particularly on an index of time-based ProM (i.e., elevated loss of time errors). Deficits in time-based prospective memory were independently predictive of cART nonadherence, even after considering the possible influence of established predictors of adherence, such as general cognitive impairment (e.g., retrospective learning and memory) and psychiatric comorbidity (e.g., depression). These findings extend a nascent literature showing that impairment in time-based prospective memory significantly increases the risk of medication nonadherence and therefore may guide the development of novel strategies for intervention. (JINS, 2009, 15, 42–52.)
Dedicated community-based services have been recommended for people with
personality disorder, but little is known about how such services should be
configured. We conducted a Delphi survey to assess opinions about this. A
panel of expert authors, service providers and service users agreed on only
21 (39%) of 54 statements on the organisation and delivery of care.
Consensus was not reached on important issues such as working with people
with a history of violent offending, the role of community outreach and the
use of compulsory treatment. Further work needs to be undertaken before the
optimal organisation of dedicated personality disorder services can be
Cerebral palsy is the most common neurological disorder in children. Epidemiological evidence suggests that antenatal origins are a major cause. Currently there is no antenatal test for cerebral palsy, no proven preventable measures in late pregnancy, and no known cure. Cerebral palsy affects not only the diagnosed child, but also their family and the community, requiring considerable social and financial resources to assist these children in their daily lives.
Objectives: The mode of contact and response levels of authors who had been asked to provide missing or incomplete data for a systematic review on diet and exercise interventions for weight loss was examined.
Methods: We contacted authors by electronic mail, letter, or both. Survival analyses were performed with the Kaplan–Meier method to determine differences in the proportion of responders over time among the different modes of contact and to determine whether response rates differed between authors from the United States and those from other countries. Logistic regression was used to determine whether the number of items requested and publication date influenced the likelihood of response.
Results: Two hundred forty-one (39.9 percent) studies had missing or incomplete data (e.g., sample size, age, caloric restriction, exercise amount, and so on). We were unable to locate ninety-five authors (39.4 percent). Of the remaining authors, forty-six authors (31.5 percent) responded to information requests. Time to respond differed by contact method (p<.05): e-mail (3 ± 3 days), letter (27 ± 30 days), and both (13 ±12 days). Response rates from U.S. authors did not differ from those of other countries.
Conclusions: Our study suggests poor success in the acquisition of essential information. Given considerable time and resources, weight loss studies require improved reporting standards to minimize the relatively unsuccessful attempt to contact authors for important and necessary information.
Protective clothing provides laboratory and hazardous-materials workers, firefighters, military personnel, and others with the means to control their exposure to chemicals, biological materials, and heat sources. Depending on the specific application, the textile materials used in protective clothing must provide high performance in a number of areas, for example, impermeability to hazardous chemicals, breathability, light weight, low cost, and durability. Models based on computational fluid dynamics have been developed to predict the performance of protective clothing materials. Such models complement testing by enabling property data from laboratory materials tests to be used in predictions of the performance of integrated multilayer garments under varying environmental conditions.
Polycapillary optics are utilized in a wide variety of applications and are integral components in many state of the art instruments. Polycapillary optics operate by collecting X-rays and efficiently propagating them by total external reflection to form focused and parallel beams. We discuss the general parameters for designing these optics and provide specific examples on balancing the interrelations of beam flux, source size, focal spot-size, and beam divergence. The development of compact X-ray sources with characteristics tailored to match the requirements of polycapillary optics allows substantial reduction in size, weight, and power of complete X-ray systems. These compact systems have enabled the development of portable, remote, and in-line sensors for applications in industry, science and medicine. We present examples of the utility and potential of these optics for enhancing a wide variety of X-ray analyses.
We have observed the existence of medium range order via fluctuation microscopy in amorphous silicon grown at 230°C. We hypothesize that this structure develops during the highly non-equilibrium growth process; high densities of ordered surface nuclei are produced which are subsequently buried and forced into an unfavorable energy state. These nm sized regions are distorted in the bulk due to strain, but remain topologically crystalline. In this work, we alter the growth energetics both at the surface and sub-surface during magnetron sputter film deposition with two kinds of particle bombardment, respectively: a controllable flux of low-energy (20eV) Ar+ ions, and higher energy (100eV) D vs. H neutrals. With this method, we demonstrate for the first time control over the intensity of this medium-range structural order at a constant substrate temperature as seen primarily with fluctuation electron microscopy, but also Raman scattering, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and SAXS. We suggest that these bombardments can increase adspecie surface mobility or drive local sub-surface restructuring (“kinetic annealing”), thus increasing or decreasing the size, density and/or strength of the ordered regions.