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Around 60 000 people in England live in mental health supported accommodation. There are three main types: residential care, supported housing and floating outreach. Supported housing and floating outreach aim to support service users in moving on to more independent accommodation within 2 years, but there has been little research investigating their effectiveness.
A 30-month prospective cohort study investigating outcomes for users of mental health supported accommodation.
We used random sampling, accounting for relevant geographical variation factors, to recruit 87 services (22 residential care, 35 supported housing and 30 floating outreach) and 619 service users (residential care 159, supported housing 251, floating outreach 209) across England. We contacted services every 3 months to investigate the proportion of service users who successfully moved on to more independent accommodation. Multilevel modelling was used to estimate how much of the outcome and cost variations were due to service type and quality, after accounting for service-user characteristics.
Overall 243/586 participants successfully moved on (residential care 15/146, supported housing 96/244, floating outreach 132/196). This was most likely for floating outreach service users (versus residential care: odds ratio 7.96, 95% CI 2.92–21.69, P < 0.001; versus supported housing: odds ratio 2.74, 95% CI 1.01–7.41, P < 0.001) and was associated with reduced costs of care and two aspects of service quality: promotion of human rights and recovery-based practice.
Most people do not move on from supported accommodation within the expected time frame. Greater focus on human rights and recovery-based practice may increase service effectiveness.
Breast milk is the only source of the essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP) in breast-fed infants. Low levels of TRP could have implications for infant neurodevelopment. The objectives of the present study were to compare the relationship of TRP and its neuroactive pathway metabolites kynurenine (Kyn) and kynurenic acid (KynA) in preterm and term expressed breast milk (EBM) in the first 14 d following birth, and the relationship of TRP metabolism to maternal stress and immune status. A total of twenty-four mothers were recruited from Cork University Maternity Hospital: twelve term (>38 weeks) and twelve preterm (<35 weeks). EBM samples were collected on days 7 and 14. Free TRP, Kyn and KynA were measured using HPLC, total TRP using MS, cytokines using the Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) assay system, and cortisol using a cortisol ELISA kit. Although total TRP was higher in preterm EBM in comparison with term EBM (P < 0·05), free TRP levels were lower (P < 0·05). Kyn, KynA and the Kyn:TRP ratio increased significantly in term EBM from day 7 to day 14 (P < 0·05), but not in preterm EBM. TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 were higher in day 7 preterm and term EBM in comparison with day 14. There were no significant differences between term and preterm EBM cortisol levels. Increased availability of total TRP, lower levels of free TRP and alterations in the temporal dynamics of TRP metabolism in preterm compared with term EBM, coupled with higher EBM inflammatory markers on day 7, may have implications for the neurological development of exclusively breast-fed preterm infants.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Precise biomarkers are urgently needed to characterize the tumor immune microenvironment in primary melanoma tumors both for prognostication and to predict the benefit of immuno-therapeutic intervention. The goal of this work is to define spatial relationships between CD8+ T cells, CD68+ macrophages and Sox10+ melanoma cells in order to define features correlating with prolonged survival METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Five micrometer slides from either the primary biopsy or subsequent wide local excision procedure were stained using Opal multiplex IHC for DAPI, CD3 (LN10, Leica), CD8 (4B11, Leica), CD68 (KP1, Biogenex), SOX10 (BC34, Biocare), HLA-DR (LN-3, Abcam), and Ki67 (MIB1, Abcam). Cell phenotypes within representative fields preselected by a trained dermato-pathologist and were visualized using the Mantra quantitative pathology workstation (PerkinElmer), and analysis of spatial distribution of CD3+ CD8+ cells analyzed using inForm® image analysis software (PerkinElmer), and Spotfire software (TIBCO). In order to test whether mIHC can better characterize the tumor immune microenvironment, we screened databases at the Herbert Irving Cancer Center (HICC) at Columbia University for stage II/III melanoma patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2012, with available FFPE of primary melanoma tissue and documented clinical follow-up. We identified a preliminary population of 57 patients to begin our analysis. Clinical follow-up was available on 35 patients of whom 21 patients were alive with no evidence of recurrence or died with no evidence of recurrence and 14 had died of melanoma. Twenty-four patients had more than 24 months of survival information available but no detailed clinical information to determine cause of death. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: First, we evaluated whether density of immune cells in tumor and stroma predicted prognosis in 35 patients with disease specific survival information. We find that high number of CD3+CD8+ cells in tumor correlates with Disease Specific Survival (DSS) (p=0.0323*) and CD3+CD8+ cells in stroma may also correlate with DSS (p=0.0671). This is consistent with what is known in the literature regarding tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). We also found that CD68+ cells in stroma predict poor prognosis (0.0259*). This is consist with the proposed deleterious role for macrophages in tumor progression. Next, using nearest neighbor analysis we examined the effect of HLA-DR and Ki67 expression on spatial distribution of CD3+CD8+ T cells. We find that CD8+ T cells are closer to myeloid (CD68+) cells expressing HLA-DR. This is consistent with the potential of HLA-DR expressing cells to present antigens to T cells, and suggests that T cells may preferentially interact with HLA-DR expressing myeloid cells. Conversely, we find that Ki67 expression on tumor (SOX10+) cells correlates with increased distance from CD3+CD8+ T cells relative to SOX10+Ki67-tumor cells. This finding is consistent with the observation that more advanced tumors with higher mitotic rates have decreased T cell infiltrates, and suggests that dividing melanoma cells are less likely to interact with T cells. In addition, we performed analysis to determine whether spatial relationships defined above impact prognosis. Clinical oncology follow-up was available on 35 of the 57 patients evaluated above. We compared proximity of CD3+CD8+ cells to both myeloid (CD68+) and tumor (SOX10+) cells in patients who recurred and those with no evidence of recurrence. We found that CD3+CD8+ cells in patients who had recurrence were closer to CD68+ HLA-DR− cells than in patients who had no recurrence (t-test, p=0.0377), this correlated with DSS (p=0.003). Conversely, distance from CD3+CD8+ to CD68+ HLA-DR+ in relationship to recurrence was not significant with a trend towards CD3+CD8+ T cells being closer in nonrecurrent patients (t-test, p=0.1362). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Consistent with the literature, we find that densities of CD8+ T cells correlates with favorable outcomes in early stage melanoma. We also find that density of CD68+ macrophages in stroma correlates with poor outcome. If proximity is a surrogate for interaction, these data indicate that dividing, Ki67+, melanoma cells interact less with CD8+ T cells than do Ki67+ melanoma cells. Further, HLA-DR expression on CD68+ infiltrating cells likely enhances their interaction with T cells. Interestingly, on further analysis, CD3+CD8+ cells were significantly closer to CD68+ HLA-DR− cells in patients who recurred, implying that interactions between these cell types may not be favorable. This analysis demonstrates that spatial analysis may be useful in predicting prognosis in early stage melanoma, and this is the first report of this type of analysis predicting outcomes in primary tumor specimens to our knowledge. Further staining and analysis of the complete patient cohort (n=120) is ongoing.
Palivizumab is the standard immunoprophylaxis against serious disease due to respiratory syncytial virus infection. Current evidence-based prophylaxis guidelines may not address certain children with CHD within specific high-risk groups or clinical/management settings.
An international steering committee of clinicians with expertise in paediatric heart disease identified key questions concerning palivizumab administration; in collaboration with an additional international expert faculty, evidence-based recommendations were formulated using a quasi-Delphi consensus methodology.
Palivizumab prophylaxis was recommended for children with the following conditions: <2 years with unoperated haemodynamically significant CHD, who are cyanotic, who have pulmonary hypertension, or symptomatic airway abnormalities; <1 year with cardiomyopathies requiring treatment; in the 1st year of life with surgically operated CHD with haemodynamically significant residual problems or aged 1–2 years up to 6 months postoperatively; and on heart transplant waiting lists or in their 1st year after heart transplant. Unanimous consensus was not reached for use of immunoprophylaxis in children with asymptomatic CHD and other co-morbid factors such as arrhythmias, Down syndrome, or immunodeficiency, or during a nosocomial outbreak. Challenges to effective immunoprophylaxis included the following: multidisciplinary variations in identifying candidates with CHD and prophylaxis compliance; limited awareness of severe disease risks/burden; and limited knowledge of respiratory syncytial virus seasonal patterns in subtropical/tropical regions.
Evidence-based immunoprophylaxis recommendations were formulated for subgroups of children with CHD, but more data are needed to guide use in tropical/subtropical countries and in children with certain co-morbidities.
To determine the number and proportion of healthcare worker (HCW) tuberculosis (TB) cases infected while working in healthcare institutions in the Netherlands and to learn from circumstances that led to these infections.
We included all HCW TB patients reported to the Netherlands TB Register from 2000 to 2015. Using data from this register, including DNA fingerprints of the bacteria profile and additional information from public health clinics, HCW TB cases were classified into 4 categories: (1) infected during work in the Netherlands, (2) infected in the community, (3) infected outside the Netherlands, or (4) outside these 3 categories. An in-depth analysis of category 1 cases was performed to identify factors contributing to patient-to-HCW transmission.
In total, 131 HCW TB cases were identified: 32 cases (24%) in category 1; 13 cases (10%) in category 2; 42 cases (32%) in category 3; and 44 cases (34%) in category 4. The annual number of HCW TB cases (P<.05), the proportion among reported cases (P<.01), and the number of category 1 HCW TB cases (P=.12) all declined over the study period. Delayed diagnosis in a TB patient was the predominant underlying factor of nosocomial transmission in 47% of category 1 HCW TB patients, most of whom were subsequently identified in a contact investigation. Performing high-risk procedures was the main contributing factor in the other 53% of cases.
In low-incidence countries, every HCW TB case should warrant timely and thorough investigation to help further define and fine-tune the HCW screening policy and to monitor its proper implementation.
Background: Anger causes significant problems in offenders and to date few interventions have been described in the Caribbean region. Aim: To evaluate a package of CBT-based Anger Management Training provided to offenders in prison in Trinidad. Method: A controlled clinical trial with 85 participants who participated in a 12-week prison-based group anger management programme, of whom 57 (67%: 16 control, 41 intervention) provided pretrial and posttrial outcome data at Times 1 and 2. Results: Intervention and control groups were not directly comparable so outcome was analysed using t-tests. Reductions were noted for state and trait anger and anger expression, with an increase in coping skills for the intervention group. No changes were noted in the control group. The improvements seen on intervention were maintained at 4 month follow-up for a sub-group of participants for whom data were available. Several predictors of outcomes were identified.
The huge diversity of freshwater fishes is concentrated into an area of habitat that covers only about 1% of the Earth's surface, and much of this limited area has already been extensively impacted and intensively managed to meet human needs (Dudgeon et al., 2006). As outlined in Chapter 1, the number and proportions of threatened species tend to rise wherever fish diversity coincides with dense human populations, intensive resource use and development pressure. Of particular concern is the substantial proportion of the global diversity of freshwater fishes concentrated within the Mekong and Amazon Basins and west-central Africa (Berra, 2001; Abell et al., 2008; Dudgeon, 2011; Chapter 1) with extensive exploitation of water resources planned to accelerate in future years (Dudgeon, 2011; Chapter 1). If current trends continue, and the social, political and economic models that have been used to develop industrialised regions of the world over the past two centuries prevail, then the future of a significant proportion of global diversity of freshwater fish species is clearly uncertain.
Understanding why so many freshwater fish species are threatened requires some understanding of their biology, diversity, distribution, biogeography and ecology, but also some appreciation of the social, economic and political forces that are causing humans to destroy the natural ecosystems upon which we all ultimately depend. To begin to understand the diversity of freshwater fishes, we first need to consider the processes that generated and continue to sustain the diversity of species we see today. Based on an understanding of how freshwater fish diversity is generated and sustained, we consider how vulnerable or resilient various freshwater fishes are to the range of anthropogenic impacts that impinge on freshwater ecosystems. Finally, we discuss how social, political and economic drivers influence human impacts on natural systems, and the changes needed to current models of development that can lead to a sustainable future for humans and the diverse range of freshwater fish species with which we share our planet. The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of the key issues and threats driving the declines in freshwater fish diversity identified in Chapter 1; subsequent chapters provide more detail on the key issues and address our options for developing a sustainable future for freshwater fishes.
A highly integrated Ku-band (10.7–12.75 GHz) planar phased array receiver of 64 antenna elements is presented. It features instantaneous reception of the full Ku-band (2.05 GHz wide) in two orthogonal polarizations with wide scan angles by using time delay instead of phase shift. The receiver is part of a system for satellite broadcast TV reception on board of moving vehicles. Two SiGe radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs) were developed, packaged in ceramic BGAs and assembled onto a 15-layer printed circuit board (PCB) which integrates the antenna elements. An outline of the system is given along with a detailed description. It sets a new standard in integration density. The receiver has extensive analog signal processing at intermediate frequency (IF)-level. A novel bipolar implementation for true time delay is proposed, with a continuous programmable delay range of 0…80 ps with less than 2.5 ps group-delay variation in 2 GHz bandwidth (BW). The wide BW calls for a constant group-delay implementation in the IF chain. The receiver (RFIC) consumes only 132 mW per channel. Each channel has 40 dB gain.
Habitat loss, the primary driver for loss of biodiversity worldwide, is of special concern for species that have a small area of occurrence, such as those restricted to islands. The Forest Thrush Turdus lherminieri is a ‘Vulnerable’ (VU) species endemic to four islands in the Caribbean, and its population has declined dramatically over the past 15 years. Because this decline is poorly understood, we studied its habitat associations on Montserrat. We conducted three repeat point count surveys and measured forest structure and habitat at each of 88 randomly placed locations in the largest forest area remaining on the island. We related Forest Thrush abundance to habitat using binomial mixture models that account for imperfect detection. Detection probability was a function of survey time, survey date, location of the survey point, and wind. Local habitat structure had the greatest influence on Forest Thrush abundance, with birds being more abundant at mid-elevations under closed canopies. We conclude that the Forest Thrush prefers mature mesic and wet forests on Montserrat. Assuming similar habitat selection in the rest of its range, the species’s long-term future depends on good protection of these natural forests on all four islands where it occurs.
This is a conceptual article located in the discourses of indigeneity, post-colonialism and critical management studies in which we seek to renew interest in Māori management as a distinctive form of management within Aotearoa New Zealand. We discuss defining Māori management and Māori organisations and their relevance for today's organsiations in New Zealand and internationally. We examine differences and similarities between Western and Māori management in terms of the four functions of management adapted from principles first proposed by Fayol in 1949. We propose a theoretical model of Māori management and discuss the implications of Māori management for management research, policy and practice.
The relationship of meal and snacking patterns with overall dietary intake and relative weight in children is unclear. The current study was done to examine how eating, snack and meal frequencies relate to total energy intake and diet quality.
The cross-sectional associations of eating, meal and snack frequencies with total energy intake and diet quality, measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI-2005), were examined in separate multivariable mixed models. Differences were examined between elementary school-age participants (9–11 years) and adolescents (12–15 years).
Two non-consecutive 24 h diet recalls were collected from children attending four schools in the greater Boston area, MA, USA.
One hundred and seventy-six schoolchildren, aged 9–15 years.
Overall, 82 % of participants consumed three daily meals. Eating, meal and snack frequencies were statistically significantly and positively associated with total energy intake. Each additional reported meal and snack was associated with an 18·5 % and a 9·4 % increase in total energy intake, respectively (P<0·001). The relationships of eating, meal and snack frequencies with diet quality differed by age category. In elementary school-age participants, total eating occasions and snacks increased HEI-2005 score. In adolescents, each additional meal increased HEI-2005 score by 5·40 points (P=0·01), whereas each additional snack decreased HEI-2005 score by 2·73 points (P=0·006).
Findings suggest that snacking increases energy intake in schoolchildren. Snacking is associated with better diet quality in elementary school-age children and lower diet quality in adolescents. Further research is needed to elucidate the role of snacking in excess weight gain in children and adolescents.
The association between consumption of full-fat dairy foods and CVD may depend partly on the nature of products and may not apply to low-fat dairy foods. Increased circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers after consumption of dairy product-rich meals suggest an association with CVD. In the present study, we tested the effects of low-fat and full-fat dairy diets on biomarkers associated with inflammation, oxidative stress or atherogenesis and on plasma lipid classes. Within full-fat dairy diets, we also compared fermented v. non-fermented products. In a randomised cross-over study, twelve overweight/obese subjects consumed during two 3-week periods two full-fat dairy diets containing either yogurt plus cheese (fermented) or butter, cream and ice cream (non-fermented) or a low-fat milk plus yogurt diet, with the latter being consumed between and at the end of the full-fat dairy dietary periods. The concentrations of six inflammatory and two atherogenic biomarkers known to be raised in CVD were measured as well as those of plasma F2-isoprostanes and lipid classes. The concentrations of six of the eight biomarkers tended to be higher on consumption of the low-fat dairy diet than on that of the fermented dairy diet and the concentrations of two plasmalogen lipid classes reported to be associated with increased oxidisability were also higher on consumption of the low-fat dairy diet than on that of the fermented dairy diet (P< 0·001), although plasma F2-isoprostane concentrations did not differ on consumption of any of the diets. On the other hand, the concentrations of plasma sphingomyelin and IL-6 were significantly higher on consumption of the non-fermented dairy diet than on that of the low-fat dairy diet (P< 0·02). In conclusion, short-term diets containing low-fat dairy products did not lead to a more favourable biomarker profile associated with CVD risk compared with the full-fat dairy products, suggesting that full-fat fermented dairy products may be the more favourable.