To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This chapter aims to present the EU perspective on the controversial issue of carbon emission trading and aviation. The article analyses how the EU advanced to the concrete implementation of emissions trading in the aviation sector. It analyses why the EU first proposed and then introduced GHG emissions trading while at the same time seeking multilateral solutions to the issue of climate change contributions from the aviation sector. It highlights the technical issues at stake, the global resistance to what was perceived as a unilateral act by the EU, and how the fact that the EU had introduced the system influenced the 2016 ICAO climate decision to adopt the CORSIA carbon offsets scheme. The article documents how the EU system eventually influenced the global debate and the global compromise that arguably respected the most important sustainable development principles. It reviews ongoing EU policy respecting sustainable development and ends with an outlook on the unlikely scenario that the new ICAO mechanism could fail, in which case the EU’s original scheme could be resurrected under EU law.
Sustainable civil aviation is significantly dependent on successfully reducing greenhouse gases produced by commercial aviation. Lighter aircraft, more efficient engines and alternative fuels are the domain of scientists and engineers. It is now time for lawyers to act. The single largest remaining barrier to reducing the environmental impact from aviation is legal; literally those impediments that block “as the crow flies” routings or practices, such as “continuous decent.” If environmental targets are to be met, and every milligram of gases emitted due to human activities is taken into account, it will be obvious that legal initiatives proposed herein must be adopted. This chapter argues that improvements in operations to ensure sustainable flight management should continue and new concepts for the purpose of improving flight management should continuously be developed. In this respect, this chapter addresses relevant provisions of the Chicago Convention, particularly articles 1 and 9, which concern airspace sovereignty and hinder the aviation industry’s objective of achieving sustainable flight management, and provides recommendations to overcome those barriers.
Over the last twenty years the number of flights has mushroomed, increasing GHG emissions from airlines and causing crowded skies and congested airports. Competitor jets follow each other across the sky and where an airline might have served a route with two planes in 1992, today it uses three. Both of these practices are routed in theories that argue that business travelers will prefer the airline with more frequent flights.
Proposed aircraft like the 300-seat Large Aircraft for Short Range (LASR) with the potential to dramatically reduce greenhouse emissions cannot emerge in the current climate. This chapter is motivated by regulatory decisions that have supported Metal Neutral Joint Ventures in North America and Europe and by capacity sharing arrangements between competitors on domestic routes in the United States and Mexico in the 1970s and 1980s. Just as such arrangements were used to provide greater consumer choice, it will be proposed that such arrangements could be used in current circumstances to reduce both the GHG impact of a flight and the amount of congestion in our skies.
This chapter proposes legal structures that would facilitate the sharing by two or more airlines of the same large aircraft. It ensures that any inter-carrier arrangement would promote competition between them and further proposes that environmental benefits, in particular a reduction in GHG emissions, be considered as part of any analysis to grant antitrust immunity to a joint venture or merger.
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is rooted in the idea that corporations must focus on issues beyond the balance sheet. For instance, CSR has had an impact in reducing child labor in developing countries, making extractive industries more responsible to local communities, and reducing the environmental impact of hotels. It is also applicable to the airline industry where it has promoted various types of positive behavior. In a world increasingly concerned with climate change and that sees as problematic the airline industry release of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at high altitude, regulators are about to set emissions reduction targets for the airline industry. Given that fuel is the single greatest cost for airlines, and that any reduction in fuel consumed involves a consequential reduction in GHGs emitted, the airline industry is generally eager to reduce GHG emissions. However, several emerging CSR best practices in civil aviation have incentivized the industry to become more environmentally friendly in recent years. In this context, this chapter argues that CSR should encourage airlines to go beyond mere self-interest or regulatory compliance in leading the way to meeting increasingly ambitious GHG reduction targets.
This chapter describes the prospects for reducing the impact of aviation on the environment through operational changes, new airframe and engine technologies, and biofuels. The focus is on the in-flight impact on the environment with particular emphasis on climate change impact. Examples of operational changes include optimized profile descents, reduced vertical separation, multistage long-distance travel, formation flight, and large aircraft for short ranges. New airframe technologies described include active laminar flow control and novel aircraft configurations such as the double bubble and the blended wing-body. Various possible approaches to improve the efficiency of jet engines are described as well as means of reducing nitrogen oxide emissions, such as lean premixed combustion. Prospects for large-scale use of biofuels are discussed and the technical path that should be taken in developing and adopting alternative jet fuels is presented.
International aviation is growing at a rate of roughly 5 percent per year. Its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are forecast to increase by 3–4 percent per year. At present, international aviation’s contribution to global GHG emissions is approximately 2 percent. However, these emissions are expected to increase considerably under a business-as-usual scenario.
Although the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has discussed environmental protection in connection with aviation since the 1970s, climate change issues are relatively new. Ever since the Kyoto Protocol entrusted the ICAO with handling GHG emissions from international aviation, the Organization has been at the center of the storm. This chapter seeks to explore the ICAO’s involvement in climate change issues, and its merits and shortcomings, as well as identifying better ways for the organization to handle GHG emissions from international aviation, in particular bearing in mind the recent agreement to develop a global market-based measure (MBM) scheme. Understanding the constraints under which the ICAO operates is central to determining its limitations and establishing realistic corrective actions to facilitate not only its adoption and implementation but, more importantly, participation in the ICAO’s global MBM.
To this end, the chapter discusses two main topics. First, it analyzes the suitability of the ICAO’s institutional setting to handle climate change issues. Secondly, the chapter studies the ICAO’s specific involvement in climate change issues. Although the ICAO has in the past taken many initiatives to tackle climate change, the chapter focuses on five key aspects: (1) the CO2 standard; (2) State action plans; (3) the aspirational goals; (4) the framework for MBMs; and, (5) the global scheme. These topics adequately illustrate the challenges faced and the political implications involved. Finally, the chapter provides some concluding observations with some suggested realistic corrective actions that the ICAO may take to better handle the issue of GHG emissions from international aviation.
This article aims to present the dispute settlement mechanism established in Chapter XVIII of the Chicago Convention. To this end, the article will analyze how the Council could resolve a potential dispute involving a defense of sustainable development. For this exercise, purely hypothetical cases will be analyzed, in which the European Union (EU) decides to unilaterally implement its emissions trading scheme in the field of aviation or in which the EU or a major aviation state applies the GHS emissions scheme mandated by the ICAO Assembly in 2016 to a state that considers it should be exempted. These cases will serve as hypotheticals to consider whether the dispute settlement mechanism set out at Article 84 of the Chicago Convention could serve to resolve such a dispute. The ICAO dispute settlement mechanism has been criticized many times in the ICAO’s history. In fact, the five disputes brought under the present article have each been resolved through diplomatic channels, involving the good offices of the President of the ICAO Council. Therefore, despite the difficulties presented by the procedure and the peculiarity of the EU representation at the ICAO, this chapter seeks to demonstrate that a potential dispute with respect to sustainable development will most likely be resolved the same way as has been done previously.
In 1944 the Chicago Convention set out the foundations of public international law regulating international air transport, but until 2016 no international agreement existed to limit its environmental impact. Sustainable Development, International Aviation, and Treaty Implementation explains why the CORSIA scheme, adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization in 2016, should be implemented in 2020 even though the adequacy of this scheme is still open to doubt and criticism. This book seeks to examine the many dimensions of the effort to contain greenhouse gas emissions from aircraft in a manner consonant with the principles of sustainable development, and examines the development of international law and policy in an area that has remained largely outside the general framework of international environmental law. International civil aviation is a significant polluter of the atmosphere, and in this volume, a group of air law and sustainable development law specialists considers how the international community can respond.
Previous studies have suggested that unbiased random walks may serve as appropriate null hypotheses for the detection of pattern in stratophenetic series. While numerous processes that influence the perceived temporal morphological evolution of a species may yield stratophenetic patterns that conform to the model of a random walk, use of the model as a null hypothesis raises several concerns. First, unbiased random walks are only a subset of a much larger set of random motions, including biased and fractional random walks. Some of these motions could also serve as appropriate null models for stratophenetic patterns. Second, due in part to the fractal nature of random walks, many types of time series begin to resemble random walks statistically as sampling resolution decreases. Therefore, indiscriminate support for unbiased random walks as null hypotheses of stratophenetic pattern leads inevitably to the commitment of Type II errors (incorrect failure to reject a null hypothesis). In this paper we simulate different hypothetical patterns of microevolution using various random walk models and apply the test of the null hypothesis. The frequency of Type II errors increases as stratigraphic completeness decreases, but at a currently unknown rate. Moreover, the test is insensitive to nongradual patterns of anagenesis.
We also demonstrate that a previously published approach is closely related to a standard method of fractal time series analysis and represents a good qualitative test of evolutionary pattern. The statistical variation underlying this method, however, is currently unknown, and further work is required to make it a robust quantitative test.
Determining which biological traits affect taxonomic durations is critical for explaining macroevolutionary patterns. Two approaches are commonly used to investigate the associations between traits and durations and/or extinction and origination rates: analyses of taxonomic occurrence patterns in the fossil record and comparative phylogenetic analyses, predominantly of extant taxa. By capitalizing upon the empirical record of past extinctions, paleontological data avoid some of the limitations of existing methods for inferring extinction and origination rates from molecular phylogenies. However, most paleontological studies of extinction selectivity have ignored phylogenetic relationships because there is a dearth of phylogenetic hypotheses for diverse non-vertebrate higher taxa in the fossil record. This omission inflates the degrees of freedom in statistical analyses and leaves open the possibility that observed associations are indirect, reflecting shared evolutionary history rather than the direct influence of particular traits on durations. Here we investigate global patterns of extinction selectivity in Devonian terebratulide brachiopods and compare the results of taxonomic vs. phylogenetic approaches. Regression models that assume independence among taxa provide support for a positive association between geographic range size and genus duration but do not indicate an association between body size and genus duration. Brownian motion models of trait evolution identify significant similarities in body size, range size, and duration among closely related terebratulide genera. We use phylogenetic regression to account for shared evolutionary history and find support for a significant positive association between range size and duration among terebratulides that is also phylogenetically structured. The estimated range size–duration relationship is moderately weaker in the phylogenetic analysis due to the down-weighting of closely related genera that were both broadly distributed and long lived; however, this change in slope is not statistically significant. These results provide evidence for the phylogenetic conservatism of organismal and emergent traits, yet also the general phylogenetic independence of the relationship between range size and duration.
Studies of taxonomic diversity over time commonly count and compare first- and last-appearance data (FADs and LADs) over a succession of temporal intervals, and interpret them with respect to taxon origination and extinction. Singleton taxa, which first appear and last appear in the same temporal interval, are often removed from analyses because they might result from preservational biases rather than evolutionary processes, or they might represent non-independent FADs and LADs. Should singleton taxa always be excluded? We argue that in the case of Paleozoic terebratulide brachiopods, although they may be sensitive to biases in sampling intensity, singleton genera should be included in diversity studies because they do not appear to result from more typical biases, such as Lagerstätten and temporal interval length, that arguably can result in artificially high numbers of singleton genera.
Singleton genera can be critical and effective when used to test hypotheses regarding the existence and generation of latitudinal diversity gradients. Contrary to the anti-tropical diversity pattern of modern articulated brachiopods, Paleozoic terebratulides show a latitudinal diversity gradient that peaks in the Tropics. The hypothesis that the Tropics are either a diversity source or sink can be tested by comparing FAD and LAD latitudes. For singleton genera, FAD and LAD latitudes are taken from the same data points and must be removed for statistical comparisons to be valid. We suggest that taxon age distributions can accommodate singleton data, as the taxon age metric considers origination and extinction simultaneously. We generated taxon age distributions to test the hypothesis that the observed Paleozoic diversity gradient results from a latitudinal bias in generic turnover rate. We discovered that singletons are not randomly distributed over latitude, with proportionally more singleton genera occurring in the Tropics. In this case, singleton genera may reflect rapid evolutionary turnover of taxa, rather than simply preservational bias. Methods that can accommodate singleton taxa should be used to study the diversity of Paleozoic terebratulides and possibly other well-skeletonized marine metazoans.
Impaired self-awareness after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is often seen in stark contrast to the observations of significant-others, who are acutely aware of the difficulties experienced by patients. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between metacognitive knowledge in daily life and emergent awareness of errors during laboratory tasks, since the breakdown of error detection mechanisms may impose limitations on the recovery of metacognitive knowledge after TBI. We also examined the extent to which these measures of awareness can predict dysexecutive behaviors. A sample of TBI patients (n=62) and their significant-others, provided reports of daily functioning post injury. In addition, patients underwent a neuropsychological assessment and were instructed to signal their errors during go/no-go tests. Interrelationships between metacognitive and emergent levels of awareness were examined, after controlling for the influence of secondary cognitive variables. Significant-other ratings correlated with errors made by the patients on neuropsychological tests but not with their premorbid function. Patients who under-reported daily life difficulties or over-reported their competency, compared to significant-other reports, were less likely to show awareness of laboratory errors. Emergent awareness was also identified as the sole predictor of performance on the modified six-element test, an ecologically valid test of multitasking. The online breakdown of error awareness after brain injury is related to difficulties with metacognitive awareness as reported in daily life, and is also predictive of dysexecutive behaviors. These findings are discussed in the context of multidimensional and neural models of awareness and error monitoring. (JINS, 2015, 21, 473–482)
The main aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid (t10c12-CLA) on intestinal microbiota composition and SCFA production. C57BL/6 mice (n 8 per group) were fed a standard diet either supplemented with t10c12-CLA (0·5 %, w/w) (intervention) or with no supplementation (control), daily for 8 weeks. Metabolic markers (serum glucose, leptin, insulin and TAG, and liver TAG) were assessed by ELISA commercial kits, tissue long-chain fatty acids and caecal SCFA by GC, and microbial composition by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Dietary t10c12-CLA significantly decreased visceral fat mass (P< 0·001), but did not affect body weight (intervention), when compared with no supplementation (control). Additionally, lipid mass and composition were affected by t10c12-CLA intake. Caecal acetate, propionate and isobutyrate concentrations were higher (P< 0·05) in the t10c12-CLA-supplemented group than in the control group. The analysis of the microbiota composition following 8 weeks of t10c12-CLA supplementation revealed lower proportions of Firmicutes (P= 0·003) and higher proportions of Bacteroidetes (P= 0·027) compared with no supplementation. Furthermore, t10c12-CLA supplementation for 8 weeks significantly altered the gut microbiota composition, harbouring higher proportions of Bacteroidetes, including Porphyromonadaceae bacteria previously linked with negative effects on lipid metabolism and induction of hepatic steatosis. These results indicate that the mechanism of dietary t10c12-CLA on lipid metabolism in mice may be, at least, partially mediated by alterations in gut microbiota composition and functionality.