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Whole-rock major- and trace-element data are presented on a sample collection from the >3 Ga Amikoq Layered Complex (ALC), and hosting amphibolites within the Mesoarchean Akia terrane, SW Greenland. The lithologies range from leuconorite to melanorite/feldspathic orthopyroxenite, orthopyroxenite to harzburgite through to dunite, and tholeiitic basaltic–picritic mafic host rocks. The Amikoq Layered Complex samples are primitive (Mg#: 65–89) with elevated Ni and Cr contents. However, the absence of troctolitic lithologies and the presence of two orthopyroxene compositional trends, suggests that the successions might not be comagmatic. On the basis of trace-element cumulate models, relatively low Ni contents and minor negative Sr-Eu anomalies in some high-Ti ultramafic rocks, it is not possible to exclude a petrogenesis related to a melt similar to that of the mafic host-rocks. Ultramafic samples with U-shaped trace-element distribution patterns are petrogenetically related to the noritic sequences, either through cumulus mineral accumulation or melt-rock reactions. Assimilation-fractional-crystallisation modelling of melanorites nevertheless require the parental melt to have been contaminated/mixed with a component of island-arc-like tholeiite affinity. A boninite-like parental melt might have been derived from the subcontinental lithospheric mantle of the Akia terrane, or alternatively via assimilation of an ultramafic parental melt with island-arc-like tholeiite. Given the complex geological evolution and high-grade metamorphic overprint of the Amikoq Layered Complex, we are unable to differentiate between the two models.
The metamorphic history of the Mesoarchean Amikoq Layered Complex within the Akia terrane of SW Greenland was characterised by electron microprobe mineral data and detailed petrography on 12 representative samples, integrated with zircon U–Pb geochronology and petrology. The complex intruded into a >3004 Ma supracrustal association now consisting of granoblastic metabasites with subordinate quartz-rich gneiss. Supracrustal host rocks contain a relict high-temperature assemblage of orthopyroxene–clinopyroxene (± pigeonite exsolution lamellae, exsolved at ~975–1010°C), which is interpreted to pre-date the Amikoq intrusion. Cumulate to granoblastic-textured rocks of the main Amikoq Layered Complex range modally from leuconorite to melanorite, orthopyroxenite to harzburgite/dunite and rare hornblende melagabbro. Observed mineralogy of main complex noritic lithologies is essentially relict igneous with orthopyroxene–biotite and hornblende–plagioclase thermometers yielding temperatures of ~800–1070°C. An anatectic zircon megacryst from a patchy quartzo–feldspathic leucosome hosted in an orthopyroxene-dominated Amikoq rock reflects local anatexis at peak metamorphic P–T conditions and yields an intrusion minimum age of 3004 ± 9 Ma. Field observations indicate local anatexis of orthopyroxene-dominated lithologies, possibly indicating a post-intrusion peak temperature of >900°C. The last preserved stages of retrogression are recorded in paragneiss plagioclase–garnet, biotite–garnet and host rock ilmenite–magnetite pairs (≤3 kbar and ~380–560°C).
The Amikoq Complex intruded a MORB-like crustal section and the former remained relatively undisturbed in terms of modal mineralogy. Preservation of igneous textures and mineralogy are related to an anhydrous, high-grade metamorphic history that essentially mimics igneous crystallisation conditions, whereas local high-strain zones acted as fluid pathways resulting in hydrous breakdown of igneous minerals. There is no evidence of equilibration of the intrusion at sub-amphibolite-facies conditions.
New dietary-based concepts are needed for treatment and effective prevention of overweight and obesity. The primary objective was to investigate if reduction in appetite is associated with improved weight loss maintenance. This cohort study was nested within the European Commission project Satiety Innovation (SATIN). Participants achieving ≥8% weight loss during an initial 8-week low-energy formula diet were included in a 12-week randomised double-blind parallel weight loss maintenance intervention. The intervention included food products designed to reduce appetite or matching controls along with instructions to follow national dietary guidelines. Appetite was assessed by ad libitum energy intake and self-reported appetite evaluations using visual analogue scales during standardised appetite probe days. These were evaluated at the first day of the maintenance period compared with baseline (acute effects after a single exposure of intervention products) and post-maintenance compared with baseline (sustained effects after repeated exposures of intervention products) regardless of randomisation. A total of 181 participants (forty-seven men and 134 women) completed the study. Sustained reduction in 24-h energy intake was associated with improved weight loss maintenance (R 0·37; P = 0·001), whereas the association was not found acutely (P = 0·91). Suppression in self-reported appetite was associated with improved weight loss maintenance both acutely (R −0·32; P = 0·033) and sustained (R −0·33; P = 0·042). Reduction in appetite seems to be associated with improved body weight management, making appetite-reducing food products an interesting strategy for dietary-based concepts.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is regularly used to treat patients with severe major depression, but the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects remain uncertain. Electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) regulates diverse neurotransmitter systems and induces anticonvulsant effects, properties implicated in mediating therapeutic effects of ECT. Somatostatin (SST) is a candidate for mediating these effects because it is upregulated by ECS and exerts seizure-suppressant effects. However, little is known about how ECS might affect the SST receptor system. The present study examined effects of single and repeated ECS on the synthesis of SST receptors (SSTR1–4) and SST, and SST receptor binding ([125I]LTT-SST28) in mouse hippocampal regions and piriform/parietal cortices.
A complex pattern of plastic changes was observed. In the dentate gyrus, SST and SSTR1 expression and the number of hilar SST immunoreactive cells were significantly increased at 1 week after repeated ECS while SSTR2 expression was downregulated by single ECS, and SSTR3 mRNA and SST binding were elevated 24 h after repeated ECS. In hippocampal CA1 and parietal/piriform cortices, we found elevated SST mRNA levels 1 week after repeated ECS and elevated SST binding after single ECS and 24 h after repeated ECS. In hippocampal CA3, repeated ECS increased SST expression 1 week after and SST binding 24 h after. In the parietal cortex, SSTR2 mRNA expression was downregulated after single ECS while SSTR4 mRNA expression was upregulated 24 h after repeated ECS.
Considering the known anticonvulsant effects of SST, it is likely that these ECS-induced neuroplastic changes in the SST system could participate in modulating neuronal excitability and potentially contribute to therapeutic effects of ECT.
Over the last 60 years, the resources and the research in the Danish Twin Registry (DTR) have periodically been summarized. Here, we give a short overview of the DTR and a more comprehensive description of new developments in the twenty-first century. First, we outline our experience over the last decade of combining questionnaire and survey data with national demographic, social, and health registers in Statistics Denmark. Second, we describe our most recent data collection effort, which was conducted during the period 2008–2011 and included both in-person assessments of 14,000+ twins born 1931–1969 and sampling of biological material, hereby expanding and consolidating the DTR biobank. Third, two examples of intensively studied twin cohorts are given. The new developments in the DTR in the last decade have facilitated the ongoing research and laid the groundwork for new research directions.
The potential to instrumentalize drug use based upon the detection of very many different drug states undoubtedly exists, and such states may play a role in psychiatric and many other drug uses. Nevertheless, nonaddictive drug use is potentially more parsimoniously explained in terms of sensation seeking/impulsivity and drug expectations. Cultural factors also play a major role in nonaddictive drug use.
We explain the currency carry trade (CT) performance using an asset pricing model in which factor loadings are regime dependent rather than constant. Empirical results show that a typical CT strategy has much higher exposure to the stock market and is mean reverting in regimes of high foreign exchange volatility. The findings are robust to various extensions. Our regime-dependent pricing model provides significantly smaller pricing errors than a traditional model. Thus, the CT performance is better explained by a time-varying systematic risk that increases in volatile markets, suggesting a partial resolution of the uncovered interest parity puzzle.
This paper introduces a highly reliable Cu interconnect technology at the 32 nm node with CuMn alloy seed. A CuMn alloy liner seed process combined with a non-gouging liner has been integrated into the minimum-pitch wiring level. Stress migration fails with CuMn seed at plate-below-via structures were shut down by a non-gouging liner process. Integration with gouging liner and non-gouging liner is compared, and results of interaction with CuMn seed are discussed in this paper.
Melodiarium Hymnologicum Bohemiae is a digital database of facsimiles of sources of Czech, German and Latin sacred monody and is essentially sui generis; there are no other such digital databases of comparable scope for this repertory. Its address is www.firmadat.cz/melodiarium/, and the English version can be reached by clicking on the Union Jack icon. The idea of Czech musicologist Stanislav Tesař, MHB is an extremely ambitious project, which has involved a team of several Czech musicologists in its realization. It is now yielding the fruits of two three-year grants from the Czech Science Foundation and further support from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic, which has funded the project from its inception. The amount of work that has been accomplished here is considerable but the sheer volume of material dictates that the catalogue will be for a long time a work in progress – it will not be complete for perhaps a decade. There is still much work to do; therefore this account is really more of a progress report than a conventional review.
Ceratopsid dinosaurs traditionally have been restored with sprawling forelimbs and were considered unable to run at high speeds. An alternative view restores the ceratopsids as rhinoceros-like with parasagittal forelimb kinematics and the ability to run faster than extant elephants. Several anatomical difficulties concerning the mounting of ceratopsid skeletons with nearly parasagittal forelimbs stem not from the forelimb itself, but from errors in rib and vertebral articulation. Matching a skeletal restoration to a probable ceratopsid trackway shows that the hands were placed directly beneath the glenoids, and that manual impressions were directed laterally, not medially as in sprawling reptiles. Pedal impressions in trackways are medial to the manual impressions, owing to the slightly averted elbow and to the asymmetrical distal femoral condyles, which directed the crus slightly medially. The limbs of ceratopsians of all sizes display substantial joint flexure, strongly indicating that the elephantine forelimb posture that has sometimes been suggested as the alternative to a sprawling posture is erroneous. The articular surfaces of uncrushed ceratopsian scapulocoracoids and forelimb joints confirm that the forelimb operated in a near-parasagittal plane with the elbows only slightly averted. The maximal running speed of even the largest ceratopsids is inferred to have significantly exceeded that of elephants and was probably broadly similar to that of rhinos.
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