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Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is regularly used to treat patients with severe major depression, but the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects remain uncertain. Electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) regulates diverse neurotransmitter systems and induces anticonvulsant effects, properties implicated in mediating therapeutic effects of ECT. Somatostatin (SST) is a candidate for mediating these effects because it is upregulated by ECS and exerts seizure-suppressant effects. However, little is known about how ECS might affect the SST receptor system. The present study examined effects of single and repeated ECS on the synthesis of SST receptors (SSTR1–4) and SST, and SST receptor binding ([125I]LTT-SST28) in mouse hippocampal regions and piriform/parietal cortices.
A complex pattern of plastic changes was observed. In the dentate gyrus, SST and SSTR1 expression and the number of hilar SST immunoreactive cells were significantly increased at 1 week after repeated ECS while SSTR2 expression was downregulated by single ECS, and SSTR3 mRNA and SST binding were elevated 24 h after repeated ECS. In hippocampal CA1 and parietal/piriform cortices, we found elevated SST mRNA levels 1 week after repeated ECS and elevated SST binding after single ECS and 24 h after repeated ECS. In hippocampal CA3, repeated ECS increased SST expression 1 week after and SST binding 24 h after. In the parietal cortex, SSTR2 mRNA expression was downregulated after single ECS while SSTR4 mRNA expression was upregulated 24 h after repeated ECS.
Considering the known anticonvulsant effects of SST, it is likely that these ECS-induced neuroplastic changes in the SST system could participate in modulating neuronal excitability and potentially contribute to therapeutic effects of ECT.
Ceratopsid dinosaurs traditionally have been restored with sprawling forelimbs and were considered unable to run at high speeds. An alternative view restores the ceratopsids as rhinoceros-like with parasagittal forelimb kinematics and the ability to run faster than extant elephants. Several anatomical difficulties concerning the mounting of ceratopsid skeletons with nearly parasagittal forelimbs stem not from the forelimb itself, but from errors in rib and vertebral articulation. Matching a skeletal restoration to a probable ceratopsid trackway shows that the hands were placed directly beneath the glenoids, and that manual impressions were directed laterally, not medially as in sprawling reptiles. Pedal impressions in trackways are medial to the manual impressions, owing to the slightly averted elbow and to the asymmetrical distal femoral condyles, which directed the crus slightly medially. The limbs of ceratopsians of all sizes display substantial joint flexure, strongly indicating that the elephantine forelimb posture that has sometimes been suggested as the alternative to a sprawling posture is erroneous. The articular surfaces of uncrushed ceratopsian scapulocoracoids and forelimb joints confirm that the forelimb operated in a near-parasagittal plane with the elbows only slightly averted. The maximal running speed of even the largest ceratopsids is inferred to have significantly exceeded that of elephants and was probably broadly similar to that of rhinos.
Over the last 60 years, the resources and the research in the Danish Twin Registry (DTR) have periodically been summarized. Here, we give a short overview of the DTR and a more comprehensive description of new developments in the twenty-first century. First, we outline our experience over the last decade of combining questionnaire and survey data with national demographic, social, and health registers in Statistics Denmark. Second, we describe our most recent data collection effort, which was conducted during the period 2008–2011 and included both in-person assessments of 14,000+ twins born 1931–1969 and sampling of biological material, hereby expanding and consolidating the DTR biobank. Third, two examples of intensively studied twin cohorts are given. The new developments in the DTR in the last decade have facilitated the ongoing research and laid the groundwork for new research directions.
The potential to instrumentalize drug use based upon the detection of very many different drug states undoubtedly exists, and such states may play a role in psychiatric and many other drug uses. Nevertheless, nonaddictive drug use is potentially more parsimoniously explained in terms of sensation seeking/impulsivity and drug expectations. Cultural factors also play a major role in nonaddictive drug use.
This paper introduces a highly reliable Cu interconnect technology at the 32 nm node with CuMn alloy seed. A CuMn alloy liner seed process combined with a non-gouging liner has been integrated into the minimum-pitch wiring level. Stress migration fails with CuMn seed at plate-below-via structures were shut down by a non-gouging liner process. Integration with gouging liner and non-gouging liner is compared, and results of interaction with CuMn seed are discussed in this paper.
We explain the currency carry trade (CT) performance using an asset pricing model in which factor loadings are regime dependent rather than constant. Empirical results show that a typical CT strategy has much higher exposure to the stock market and is mean reverting in regimes of high foreign exchange volatility. The findings are robust to various extensions. Our regime-dependent pricing model provides significantly smaller pricing errors than a traditional model. Thus, the CT performance is better explained by a time-varying systematic risk that increases in volatile markets, suggesting a partial resolution of the uncovered interest parity puzzle.
Melodiarium Hymnologicum Bohemiae is a digital database of facsimiles of sources of Czech, German and Latin sacred monody and is essentially sui generis; there are no other such digital databases of comparable scope for this repertory. Its address is www.firmadat.cz/melodiarium/, and the English version can be reached by clicking on the Union Jack icon. The idea of Czech musicologist Stanislav Tesař, MHB is an extremely ambitious project, which has involved a team of several Czech musicologists in its realization. It is now yielding the fruits of two three-year grants from the Czech Science Foundation and further support from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic, which has funded the project from its inception. The amount of work that has been accomplished here is considerable but the sheer volume of material dictates that the catalogue will be for a long time a work in progress – it will not be complete for perhaps a decade. There is still much work to do; therefore this account is really more of a progress report than a conventional review.
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